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US history final
Terms in this set (94)
a person who has become rich through ruthless and unscrupulous business practices
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
gave African American men the right to vote
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
Philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892- very successful
An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process.
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Gospel of Wealth
book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. Misused against poor labores though
People's Party; political party formed in 1891 to advocate a larger money supply and other economic reforms
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. was assassinated
26th President, passed two acts that purified meat, took over in 1901 when McKinley was shot, Went after trusts, formed the "Bull Moose Party", wanted to build the Panama canal, and make our Navy ( military stronger )
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898; Evidence suggests an internal explosion, however Spanish military was framed by Yellow Journalism; The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915.
a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
Prohibition of alcohol
gave women the right to vote (women's suffrage)
Women's suffrage movement
find out who was invloved in this
Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
National Women's Party
a women's organization founded in 1916 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
Exposed the horrible, unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry. Example of muckraking.
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Wilson's 14 Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for post-war peace: no secret treaties; freedom of the seas; removal of economic barriers; reduction of arms; adjust colonial claims
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Stock Market Crash
Leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
Securities and Exchange Commission
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
Social Security Act: Relief passed in 1935 to provide Americans with retirement benefits. Mandated unemployment and disability insurance. Workers and employers pay into this fund.
Criticisms of New Deal
did not do enough to help African Americans and women; did too much by being too socialistic, caused deficit spending, national debt, and taxes were too high
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
1939 laws designed to keep the United States out of future wars
The laws passed by the U.S. allowing us to give aid to our Allies in early WWII
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Executive Order 9066
112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes and businesses
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the led the Japanese to surrender and helped bring and end to WWII
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Limits the president to two terms.
gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was medicare and medicaid.
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Leader of the civil rights movement
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
LBJ's Great Society
war against poverty, education, and improving Civil Rights
Republican; advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice... Nixon
Created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Iran Hostage Crisis
a group of Iranians overran the American embassy in Iran's capital of Tehran and took 52 hostages
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils"
Reagan's economic policy; tax cuts, arms build up, budget cuts
Conservative political movements in industrialized democracies that have arisen since the 1960's and stress "traditional values," often with a racist undertone.
George W. Bush
began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Election of 2000
Bush v. Gore; Bush won although Gore won popular vote; controversy over the final vote count in Florida; settled by Supreme Court decision in favor of Bush
the U.S. was attacked by the Al Qaeda which resulted in the War on Terrorism and the Patriot Acts
War in which US successfully took down a dominating dictator and is currently helping them "get back on their feet".
Recession of 2008
caused by a collapse of the housing market, the mismanagement of housing mortgages by banks, and the bankruptcy of major investment firms
Democrat; first African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia
Affordable Care Act
An expansion of medicaid, most of employers must provide health insurance, have insurance or face surtax, prevents rejection based on pre-existing condition. Also referred to as "Obamacare", signed into law in 2010.
what was happening and what allowed it to happen?
creating change within that time?
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