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Chem Exam 1 - Chapter 1
Terms in this set (63)
Primary substances from which all other things are built. They can't be broken down into simpler substances
Who created the periodic table?
vertical columns on periodic table, which contains elements with similar properties.
horizontal rows in the periodic table, which contains elements with the same number of electron shells.
What type of elements are Group A?
A = representative elements (re) found in FIRST TWO and LAST SIX groups. Representative elements know exactly what to expect. Highly predictable on their chemical and physical properties.
What type of elements are group b?
B= transition elements (Te). These elements are highly unpredictable.
Group 1 (IA) elements. These metals are soft, shiny, good conductors and react vigorously.
Group 2 (II A) elements. Shiny metals, but are not as reactive as IA elements.
Alkali Earth Metals
Group 7 (VII A) elements
Group 8 (VIII A) elements. Odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
number of electrons in outermost energy level.
Valence Electrons. Group number gives us this number
most of them are shiny solids; good conductors of heat and electricity; melt at higher temperatures; all the metals are solids at room temperature except mercury (Hg)
not very shiny, malleable or ductile; poor conductors of heat and electricity; typically have low melting points and densities. mostly gasses. The only liquid ____ at room temperature is bromine.
Basic submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
substances formed when two or more atoms come together (bond) in specific geometric arrangements
How can matter be classified?
Its state (liquid solid or gas) and its composition
a substance composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined
a group of two or more elements and/or compounds physically intermingled
made up of only one component, and its composition is invariant
substance composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another
What kind of mixture is this?
- no visible boundaries between components
- mixing goes on atomic / molecular level
- composition considered uniform throughout the sample
- called solutions
COMPOSITION IS CONSTANT
What kind of mixture is this?
- visible boundaries between components
- composition not uniform throughout
- mixing is of larger scale pieces
COMPOSITION IS VARIABLE
- All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
- All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties.
- Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
- A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Atoms are composed of smaller bits of matter called ?
subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)
no electric charge; has about the same mass of a proton.
positive charge. Mass of 1.7 x 10^-24 g.
Negative charge. Mass of 9.1 x 10^-28 g.
Where are each of the subatomic particles located?
Electrons are located in the electron cloud, while protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus.
In any given atom, The number of protons
the number of electrons (making the atom neutral)
Atomic mass unit calculation
Amu = 1/12 x mass of the carbon atom
number of protons in an atom
number of protons PLUS number of neutrons
approximately number of protons plus neutrons.. Also depends on relative abundance of different isotopes.
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (different masses)
electron dot symbols are also known as ____
what do they represent
the lewis structure
amount of valence electrons
From left to right, atomic size
From left to right, ionization energy
Going down a group, atomic size
Going down a group, ionization energy
From left to right, metallic character
Going down, metallic character
Which of the following is a characteristic of the modern periodic table?
The elements in each group have similar chemical properties
Which of the following properties is not a characteristic of the Group 1A elements (alkali metals)
Most of them are liquids at room temp
The Group 8A elements ____
are unreactive and are rarely found in combination with other elements
characteristic of nonmetals?
low melting points
all of the following will lead to a homogenous mixture EXCEPT
a. vinegar and water
b. sugar and coffee
c. salt and water
d. mud and water
e. ice tea and lemonade
mud and water
How are gases different from solids and liquids?
gases are compressible
What is true ab matter?
In both solids and liquids, the atoms or molecules pack closely to one another
Identify characteristics of a gas
no definite shape and no definite volume
identify charges of protons, neutrons, electrons
semiconductors are located in the periodic table
line dividing metals from nonmetals in the table
according to atomic theory,
atoms are neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
the number of neutrons in an atomic is equal to
mass number - atomic number
isotopes are elements of the same atom that have
the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons
What about subatomic particles is true?
A neutral atom contains the same number of protons and electrons
Which of the following statements about isotope is true?
some elements have 3 or more naturally occurring isotopes
True or false? Alkali metals are fairly unreactive
What describes a metal?
good conductor of electricity and heat, found on left of periodic table, forms ionic compounds with nonmetals
true or false? halogens tend to form +1 ions
green yellowish gas used as disinfectant
When filling degenerate orbitals, electrons fill them singly first, with parallel spins is known as
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