Upgrade to remove ads
akin -- semester 2 final (background)
Terms in this set (69)
what marked the beginning of the restoration period?
the coronation of King Charles II
what did Charles II try to emulate?
the sophistication and splendor he observed while in exile in France
-- patron of arts and science
wanted to limit royal authority
wealthy merchants, financiers, and nobles
supporters of royal authority
land owning aristocrats and conservative anglicans
who came after Charles II?
what was king james determined to do? what ended up happening?
- restore roman catholicism
- parliament forced him to abdiate
- william and mary took the throne peacefully
William and Mary take the throne from James II
Sign the English Bill of Rights 1689
why did parliament pass the english bill of rites when William and Mary took the throne after glorious revolution?
to put limits on royal authority
what was King George I like?
spoke no english
the whigs supported him
what was the enlightenment?
age of reason
- late 1600s to 1700s
- people began to use scientific reasoning to understand the world by applying reason, people could understand natural causes of events in nature
Who was Sir Isaac Newton?
- his findings suggested that the universe operated by logical principles that we are capable of understanding
- led to scientists making new findings
how did Newton's findings thrill philosophers?
encouraged people to use their intelligence to rid themselves of unjust authorities (asserted the right of the Glorious Revolution)
How did british citizens live during this restoration period/the 18th century?
- lavish estates, London townhouses
- writers, artists, politicians gathered in coffeehouses to exchange ideas, conduct business, and gossip
T/F: the restoration was a relatively stable time in britain
- middle class grew and prospered
- ordinary men/women had more money, leisure, and education than ever before
what did english during this time want in writing?
- wanted writing that reflected their own concerns and experiences -- in clear prose they could understand!!
what was very popular during the restoration?
what was England's first novel?
Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
what was neoclassicism?
polished, witty, formal
- writers modeled their work on those of ancient Greece and rome
- sometimes called the
- balance, order, logic, emotional restraint
- focusing on society and human intellect
- avoiding personal feelings
what was popular in neoclassicism? what is it?
- pointing out aspects of society neoclassicists felt needed to be changed
what are the two types of satire?
Horatian and Juvenalian
gentle, playful, sympathetic approach of Horace
darker, biting style of Juvenal
who are two writers of the period who illustrate the two models of satire?
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift (they were friends)
- poking fun at those of high society and addressing moral, political, and philosophical issues in clever, elegant couplets
- appalled by hypocrisy and corruption
- attacked educators, politicians, churchmen
- commentary on human nature (especially in Gulliver's travels)
what was the second half of the 18th century called?
Age of Johnson
- poetry began to be written simpler, freer, and on subjects close to the human heart
britain's most influential man of letters of the day
- poet, critic, essayist, journalist, scholar, lexicographer
- dictionary of the english language
- literary dictator of london
what are poems of robert burns like?
anticipate first stirrings of romanticism at the end of the century
women were denied participation to coffeehouses and universities, missing out on many ideas by the educated class. what did they do in response?
created their own gatherings in their homes called salons
what was seen as a turning point in history of humankind and a move toward a more ideal/civilized society
who were the main writers of the romantic period?
who ruled england during the french and american revolutions?
how was George III as a ruler?
- inflexible, unsympathetic attitude towards colonists
- not a capable king
- permanently insane
reign of terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
what were the many social ills affecting english society during romantic period?
- industrial centers had no representation in parliament
- archaic laws denied rights to many religious groups
- cities -- crime and poor sanitation
- criminal justice system had harsh penalties
- all efforts of reform suppressed because of the fear of anarchy
- GB becoming increasingly conservative
industrial revolution and improvements in farming brought...
increased prosperity to the middle and upper classes, degrading poverty to families employed in factories and mills
living and working conditions were appalling
economy works best without government intervention
no laws to regulate factory conditions, hours, wages, etc.
T/F: there was no economic depression during romantic period
unemployed factory workers rioted in several counties, smashing machinery that took their jobs
- factory workers worked together but since unions were illegal, government troops had to suppress their meetings
where did romantic as a literary style get its start?
the romantics in england
- revolted against order, propriety, and traditionalism of the age of reason
- influenced by same forces that gave rise to american and french revolutions and by the agitation for for political, social, and economic change
- searched for freer artistic forms
- emotion > reason
- nature = primary concern
- lyric poem that talked about ordinary things, experiences, thoughts, feelings, and desires
what is the definition of romanticism by wordsworth?!
spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected in tranquility
saw poverty and suffering all around him and was a supporter of french revolution
-- innocence and experience
- liked kids because they were innocent
oral poetry of his native scotland
sympathy for democratic vision of both revolutions
conveyed experiences of simple, rural scottish life
lowland scottish dialect
Wordsworth and Coleridge
- the publication that the romantic period really began
committed to the revolutionary cause
- poet of a common man, wrote to capture everyday experiences in simple language
coleridge and wordsworth believed...
human experience flowed freely from communion with nature
while wordsworth discussed the everyday, coleridge talked about...
how did wordsworth define features of english romanticism?
- rejection of artificiality
- in favor of passion/emotion
- love of nature
- respect for commonplace
- freeing of imagination
A group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime.
Notable authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
subject of scandal
enthusiasm for rebellion and great passion
dark, handsome, restless, and a bit diabolical
percy bysshe shelley
dismay of social injustice
eloped with a 16 year old!
warning of the dangers of science thru frankenstein
if romanticism is about idealism, what is the victorian era about?
-- bringing about a positive social change!
material advancements were super important to the victorians. like what?
- electricity is new
- trains, smog, factories, growing cities
the victorians may be pessimistic but?
victorians believe that social change is very much possible
what are major social problems in the victorian era?
- economic depression, a lot of poor people
- high unemployment
- famine, starving in the streets
what did the victorians believe?
that by working together, they can fix the problems in society
what reforms took place in the victorian period?
- middle class (not women yet!) had the right to vote
- established labor laws
- food more available and is cheap due to mass production in factories
- MOST IMPORTANT: the population became literate because of
genteel and prude
characteristics of the victorian era, but the society was still super patriarchal
science and technology was emerging in the victorian era. what did the people have to say about it?
- it is scaring them
- they are embracing it and loving it, but it is scaring them
- charles darwin
what are writers asking about progress in this time period?
does progress really mean we are improving?
most famous novelist of the time
writers in victorian era are...
- exploring spiritual doubt (think Frankenstein!)
- people felt they were indifferent to natural forces
- writers have two main points...
1. is our reality really like this? they want us to think a little bit
2. no matter how chaotic or bleak the world may seem, reader and writer together can solve society's problems
exalted, complex lyric poem that develops single, dignified theme
Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human/present
- friends with wordsworth
- extraordinary --> ordinary
Other sets by this creator
akin -- semester 2 final (everything we have read)
chapter 16 vocab
Vocab Final [akin]
Other Quizlet sets
IFM Lecture 5: Chapter 5 & 9
Mandatory Knowledge Test
Authorized Relationships, Duties, and Disclosures