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What is 1 + 3?
if a liver fracture due to trauma is closer or further from the hilus, surgery is necessary?
term for the procedure to treat hepatic trauma where the flow of blood to the liver is controlled by occluding the hepatic artery where it comes off of the celiac artery
how many minutes can the pringle maneuver be done for on the liver?
are hepatic adenomas or adenocarcinomas more common in the cat?
do hepatic adenocarcinomas usually carry a good or poor prognosis in dogs?
do the majority of hepatic adenocarcinomas in dogs occur on the right or left side?
cholecystitis / cholangiohepatitis can usually be managed medically until it becomes severe, but what condition can result due to a rupture?
surgery that can be used to treat cholecystitis/cholangiohepatitis
mucus, inspissated bile, altered gallbladder motility
3 possible etiologies of a biliary mucocele
an adhesion usually forms between the gallbladder and what else (which shows a hyperechoic line on ultrasound)?
drug group used for the medical treatment of biliary mucoceles
confirm patency of bile duct
after performing a cholecystectomy, what must you do to assure that the bile has somewhere to go?
extraluminal biliary obstructions are usually due to diseases affecting what other 2 organs?
diagnosis of a bile peritonitis can be confirmed when the bilirubin level in the abdominal effusion is how many times larger that the serum bilirubin?
sterile bile = ________________ peritonitis
infected bile = __________________ peritonitis
parenchymal fracture and ligation
type of partial hepatic lobectomy that results in the most blood loss
bile duct stenting
procedure most commonly done to relieve obstructions due to extraluminal compresion
following a bile duct stenting, what would you do in order to divert the bile?
retrograde catheterization into bile duct
why do you perform a duodenotomy in addition to a cholecystectomy procedure?
when removing the gallbladder, you don't want to transect the bile duct too far distally from the bladder because you don't want to damage what structures?
bile peritonitis, bleeding
2 complications of a cholecystectomy
what is the most common procedure done to create a biliary diversion?
impacting with ingesta
the initial size of the stoma for a cholecystoduodenostomy needs to be 2.5-3 cm long in order to reduce the risk of what?
2 conditions that can develop secondarily to the gallbladder becoming impacted with ingesta