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Psycho-Social Development

- Physical activity can influence psycho-social development both positively and negatively.
- Thus, physical education instructors must create an environment that maximizes the benefits of physical activity and minimizes the potential negative aspects.

Positive Individual Influences

- Reduces tension and depression
- Provides means of affiliation with others
- Provides exhilarating experiences
- Provides aesthetic experiences
- Creates positive body image
- Controls aggression
- Provides relaxation and a change of pace from long hours of work, study or other stresses
- Provides challenge and sense of accomplishment
- Provides a way to be healthy and fit
- Improves self-eteem through skill mastery
- Provides creative experiences
- Creates positive addiction to exercise in contrast to negative addiction to substances

Positive Group Influences

- Development of cooperation skills
- Acceptance of and respect for all persons regardless of race, creed, or origin
- Assimilation of the group attitude
- Opportunity to develop a group relationship
- Development of a spirit of fairness
- Development of traits of good citizenship
- Development of leadership and following skills
- Development of self-discipline
- Additional avenues for social acquaintances
- Development of social poise and self-understanding
- Development of a social consciousness with an accompanying sense of values
- Individual and social development

Negative Influences

- Ego-centered athletes
- Winning at all costs
- False values
- Harmful pressures
- Loss of identity
- Role conflict
- Aggression and violence
- Compulsiveness
- Over-competitiveness
- Addiction to exercise, where commitment to exercise has a higher priority than commitments to family, interpersonal relationships, work, and medical advice
- Escape or avoidance of problems
- Exacerbation of anorexia nervosa
- Exercise deprivation effects
- Fatigue
- Overexertion
- Poor eating habits
- Self-centerdness
- Preoccupation with fitness, diet, and body image

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