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Unit 4 Bonding and Nomenclature
Terms in this set (68)
What are ions?
Atoms that have either lost or gained 1 or more electrons
Are ions charged?
Yes, atoms are neutral
What is a cation?
-has LOST 1 or more electrons
What form cations?
What is an anion?
-has GAINED 1 or more electrons
What form anions?
Do ions have the same chemical properties as their elements?
Do transition metals form cations?
Yes, charges are harder to predict
How do you name a cation?
Element + the word "ion"
Sodium ion, magnesium ion, etc
How do you name an anion?
Change last syllable to "ide"
Chloride, oxide, phosphide
What is a simple ionic compound?
Formed by combo of cation and anion (metal and nonmetal)
1 ion loses an electron, the other ion gains an electron
Can ions exist independently?
What are simple ionic compounds commonly referred to?
What is the net charge of ionic compounds?
0 (charges of anion and cation need to cancel out)
always neutral, despite the fact that ions have a charge
Must the ratio of the cation and anion be determined?
Yes, so that all the electrons are accounted for
What does the subscript denote?
How many atoms are in each compound (omit 1)
Should you reduce subscripts whenever possible?
Which is written first when writing formulas?
Cation then anion
Name of metal element normally followed by the ion name of the nonmetal (ide)
What is the trick for writing charges?
What do transitional metals always form?
Are charges easily determined by location on the periodic table?
Can they have more than one possible charge and what is that called?
Yes, oxidation state
What must be included to specify a transition metal's charge?
Which elements don't require a roman numeral bc they have only 1 possible charge?
What is the 1 polyatomic cation to know?
Ammonium: NH4 +1
For prefixes and suffixes what do you start with?
What is 1 more than -ate?
What is one less than -ate?
What is one less than -ite?
What happens with the prefix thio-?
Replace "O" with "S"
What must polyatomic ions exist in?
What do you do if there is more that 1 of the polyatomic ion after crisscrossing charges?
Use ( )
What is the net charge still?
What are covalent bonds?
Occurs between 2 nonmetals or between a nonmetal and a metalloid
What do covalent bonds involve?
The sharing of e- to fill the valence shells of each atom
Are ions formed?
No, bc no e- are gained, lost, or transferred between atoms
What do the prefixes denote?
The # of each type of atom in a covalent compound
What prefix is omitted on the 1st element?
Mono, even if there is just 1 atom
What are the prefixes?
What are the other names for ionic and covalent bonds?
What is the origin of bonding for both?
Ionic: electron transfer
Covalent: electron sharing
What is the state at room temperature?
Covalent: solid, liquid, gas
How is the electrical conductivity?
Ionic: good--> when melted/dissolved
What is the melting/boiling points (compared to each other)?
Are metallic elements present?
How are the forces between particles?
Ionic: very strong attraction between cations and anions
Covalent: strong bonds between atoms
What are the two types of covalent bonds?
1. Non polar covalent bond: bonding e- are attracted to both atoms with EQUAL force and thus are shared EQUALLY
2. Polar covalent bond: shared pair of e- is held MORE closely by ONE of the atoms
What is the electronegativity difference for nonpolar covalent bonds?
What is the electronegativity difference for polar covalent bonds?
How do you decide when the electronegativity difference is 1.7-2.0?
1. metal involved--> ionic
2. only nonmetals--> polar covalent
What is the electronegativity difference for ionic bonds?
What do polar molecules have?
+/- ends called dipoles
Where are shared e- more likely to be found closer to?
The more EN element (unequal distribution of charge--> polar)
What happens as EN increases?
Polarity and bond strength increases as well
What do stronger bonds generally have?
Shorter bond lengths
What do bonds with the highest bond energy (strongest bonds) usually involve?
What do bonded atoms do?
Vibrate back and forth--> as if connected on a spring
What are molecular orbitals?
Space between and surrounding the nuclei of 2 atoms in which the shared e- reside and move
What are acids?
Special type of ionic compound
When do acids form?
When Hydrogen ion (H+) bonds with an ion
What do the formulas always begin with?
At least 1 H atom
What do you look at to name an acid?
How do you name it if the anion ends in "ide"?
How do you name it if it ends in "ate"?
How do you name it if it ends in "ite"?
What are bases?
Special type of ionic compound
When do bases form?
When hydroxide (OH) bonds with a cation
What do the formulas of bases always end in?
At least 1 OH group
This set is often in folders with...
Goozh Chemistry Unit 1 Vocabulary
Chem Unit 3 Periodic Table
Unit 3 Atomic Structure and Periodic Table
Chemistry: Common Polyatomic Ions
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