The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior is known as ________.
a. learning c. cognition
b. intelligence formation d. imprinting
We associate the name ________ most closely with classical conditioning.
a. E. L. Thorndike c. B. F. Skinner
b. Albert Bandura d. Ivan Pavlov
D. Ivan Pavlov
A researcher trains a little boy to fear a rabbit by making a loud, frightening noise every time the boy approaches the rabbit. This type of learning is known as ________.
a. classical conditioning c. cognitive learning
b. operant conditioning d. vicarious learning
A. Classical Conditioning
An example of a behavior that is learned through operant conditioning is ________.
a. cleaning up your room to get your parents' approval
b. blinking in response to a flash of light
c. sneezing in response to dust
d. pulling one's hand away from a flame
A. Cleaning up your room to get your parents' approval
In ________ conditioning, new behaviors can build on previously established ones.
a. operant but not classical c. neither classical nor operant
b. both operant and classical d. classical but not operant
B. Both Operant and Classical
If a person is paid at the end of each work day, the reinforcement schedule would be ________.
a. variable-interval c. fixed-ratio
b. fixed-interval d. variable-ratio
Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
a. money c. warm, physical contact
b. a drink of water d. a bar of candy
Learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable is called ________ learning.
a. primary c. secondary
b. cognitive d. autonomic
A key to social learning theory is ________.
a. observational learning c. latent learning
b. insight learning d. cognitive mapping
A. Observational Learning
Social learning theory's foremost proponent is ________.
a. Thorndike c. Bandura
b. Skinner d. Watson
Emitted, voluntary behavior is BEST modified by ________.
a. trial and error c. aversive conditioning
b. classical conditioning d. operant conditioning
Spontaneous, voluntary behaviors that you engage in by choice are called ________ behaviors.
a. latent c. operant
b. vicarious d. manifest
A budding author wishes to improve her typing. Which of the following would be LEAST helpful in a program to help her reach her goal?
a. giving herself reinforcement each time she consistently improves in either speed or accuracy
b. keeping a careful record of her current rates of speed and accuracy
c. punishing herself whenever she fails to achieve the goals she has set for herself
d. deciding on specific improvements she wishes to make in speed and accuracy
C. Punishing herself whenever she fails to achieve the goals she has set for herself
In the experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned stimulus was the ________.
a. rat c. experimenter
b. loud noise d. laboratory
B. Loud Noise
Biofeedback is an application of ________.
a. classical conditioning c. social learning
b. preparedness d. operant conditioning
The idea that in conditioning, the conditioned stimulus must signify that if one thing occurs, something else is likely to occur, is part of ________ theory.
a. classical conditioning c. operant conditioning
b. contingency d. autonomic conditioning
The mental image of an area, such as a maze or the floor plan of a building, is called a ________.
a. mental set c. Gestalt
b. cognitive map d. perceptual illusion
B. Cognitive Map