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Physics - Chapter 9: Uniform Circular Motion
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When a wheel rotates on an axis, do all points have the same angular speed? Explain.
All points on the wheel have the same angular speed because the wheel rotates a fixed angle in an amount of time so all points rotate at the same angular speed.
When a wheel rotates on an axis, do all points have the same tangential speed? Explain.
All points don't have the same tangential speed because the points on the outer edge of the wheel travel a larger circumference in the same amount of time as the points closer to the center.
It is sometimes said that water is removed from clothes in a spin dryer by centrifugal force throwing the water outward. Is this correct?
No. Centrifugal force is a fictitious force. As the clothes spin, the inertia of the water wants to move in a straight line with its tangential velocity. The force holding the water on the clothes isn't enough to keep the water in place and the water moves in a line tangent to its original circular path.
Irene says that Earth's force of gravity is greater on a piece of iron than on a piece of wood having the same mass. Do you agree? Explain.
No. They would have the same amount of gravity because they have the same mass and they are the same distance from Earth's center. Newton's equation for gravitational force.
Why does mud fly off a rapidly turning automobile tire?
As the tire spins rapidly, the inertia of the mud is enough to overcome the static friction force holding the mud to the tire.
When you are in the front passenger seat of a car turning left, you may find yourself pressed against the right door. Why do you press against the door?
As the car turns to the left, your inertia wants to continue in its straight line motion. The car changes its direction before you do, and the right side door presses into you, causing you then to change your direction with the car.
Describe all the forces acting on a child riding a horse on a merry-go-round. Which of these forces provides the centripetal acceleration of the child?
The forces on the child include its weight force, the normal force of the horse, and the static friction force between the horse and the child. The static friction force points inward toward the center of rotation and provides the centripetal acceleration.
People sometimes ask "What keeps a satellite up in its orbit around the Earth?" How would you respond?
The speed of the satellite tries to move tangent to the circular orbital path around Earth. At the same time, the gravitational force between the satellite and Earth is
trying to pull it toward Earth. The satellite isn't so much being kept "up" as it is in a constant state of free fall around Earth.
What is the chance of a light car safely rounding an unbanked curve on an icy road as compared to that of a heavy car: worse, the same, or better? Assume that both cars have the same speed and are equipped with identical tires.
Considering that the icy road is not frictionless, the light car has the same chance as the heavy car. The small force of static friction allows either car to safely round the curve and is equal to the centripetal force on the car. Setting the static friction force equal to the centripetal force, mass will be eliminated from the equation.
A stone is tied to a string and whirled around in a circle at a constant speed. Is the string more likely to break when the circle is horizontal or when it is vertical? Assume that the constant speed is the same in each case.
The string is more likely to break when whirled in a vertical circle because the tension in the string is equal to the centripetal force and the weight force when it is at the bottom of the circle. Because the tension force is greatest at this point, it is more likely to break.
If you lose your grip on a rapidly spinning playground merry-go-round and fall off. In which direction would you fly?
Your inertia will cause you to move in a straight line tangent to the circle of rotation.
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