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Jordan's family keeps two pet llamas on their property in sunny Florida. It is Jordan's job to feed the llamas, so she goes out to the field to call them in for their meal. Only one shows up, so Jordan goes to investigate. She finds the other lying beside a pond that has a huge blue-green algae bloom. The animal is vomiting. Jordan calls the vet, who rushes out to treat the llama. After getting it stabilized, he tells Jordan that the llama will have to stay under its enclosure for a while. Which sentence BEST explains why the llama must now stay out of the sun?
Cyanobacterial poisoning can cause sensitivity to sunlight.
Called out to examine a farmer's sheep, Jared notes that they are displaying symptoms of having ingested poison. He asks the farmer about any old equipment or lead paint in the pastures or around the property. The farmer says there is nothing like that around. Thinking about how it is the springtime, Jared asks if the farmer has noticed any patches of hemlock popping up. The farmer's eyes narrow, and he admits that he could have missed some down in one of the lower pastures. How is the time of year relevant to the condition of the sheep?
Hemlock tends to bloom in the spring, so if it were fall, it would rule out that plant.
A large ranch needs to change the feed that it gives its cattle. The feed they used to give was low in nitrates, but the company has stopped selling it. The new feed is higher in nitrates, so the ranchers do not switch the cattle over all at once. They take a few months to slowly lower the level of old feed, while introducing the new feed. Which sentence BEST explains what the ranchers are most likely attempting to do by adjusting the feed this way?
They are trying to get the cattle to build up a tolerance for nitrates.
Jin's St. Bernard has successfully been treated for the snakebite he received while exploring an old duck blind on their walk. Jin recognized the water moccasin and quickly got his dog to the vet, who was able to start an IV and administer antivenom. The vet tells Jin that if his dog holds steady for the next 24 hours, he may be able to go home. When Jin is able to leave the vet with his dog, which prescription is he MOST likely to also be sent with?
pain medication and antibiotics for infection
The representative of a large dairy farm is speaking before the town planning board. There is an application before the board to open up an apple orchard on the adjoining property. The board was ready to approve the application when the dairy representative spoke up. He explained that if the council allowed an orchard to be planted so close to their cattle, it could pose a risk of cyanide poisoning among their valuable stock. The owner of the proposed orchard countered that there was only a danger if the cattle came onto his property to eat his trees. Instead of siding with one or the other, which compromise would the counsel MOST likely agree to?
They could have the orchard owner pay for improved fencing between the two properties.
Felipe's cattle decided to sample some toxic oleander that he didn't realize had cropped up at the back of one pasture. He noticed that several of them were vomiting and went to find the reason why. After calling the vet, she told him that she would administer activated charcoal to help absorb some of the poison. Telling him that the half-life of oleander is 7.5 days, she recommends that he keep a close eye on the most ill cows for at least two weeks. Which would be the best way to explain this statement in layman's terms?
The cows will have about half the level of oleander in their system in 7.5 days than they do now.
A veterinary scientist is performing an autopsy on a mountain lion that was found dead in the desert. Upon closely examining the lion, she finds what look to be two puncture wounds on the animal's shoulder area. Opening the lion up, the scientist can see that the red blood cells have been destroyed, causing hemorrhaging to occur. That is what likely killed the mountain lion. After this finding, what would the scientist MOST likely deem as the cause of death?
a bite from a viperine snake
Going about her cleaning routine as usual, Jayla sprays an aerosol bleach cleanser in her bathroom and then leaves to let it air out before she scrubs it down. Only two or three minutes later, she notices her cat, Grimaldi, fleeing the bathroom, coughing. Jayla hadn't realized that Grimaldi was in the bathroom when she sprayed the chemical, so she rushes over to check on him. He seems to be wheezing and shaking a bit. Calling the vet, he asks Jayla to explain how Grimaldi was exposed to the chemical. Hearing Jayla's explanation, which method of poisoning will the vet MOST likely assume Grimaldi is dealing with?
Ryan works for a pest control company. He put out some rodenticide in an airplane hanger that had seen a large infestation of field mice. The next day, the owner calls Ryan, complaining that he must have used an inferior product. The owner tells Ryan that he watched several mice eat the rodenticide but none of them have died. How would Ryan MOST likely reason with the property owner?
Ryan would tell him that some rodenticides take more than one dose to work.
After work every day, Logan takes his two golden retrievers down to the river to swim. Today, the dogs run ahead of him just as they normally do. He loses sight of them, but he can hear them happily splashing in the water already. They both begin to bark suddenly and then Logan hears a yelp. He runs to the edge of the river and finds one of his dogs limping its way toward him, panting heavily. Logan kneels to look at his dog's furry paw and sees two holes with blood leaking from them. Which type of snake has Logan's poor dog MOST likely met during his swim?
Bayani is a veterinary scientist who is treating a young malamute who had a nasty tangle with a cottonmouth snake. After hooking the dog up to an IV, he successfully gives the dog the antivenin and then wraps him in a warm blanket. Considering the progression of snakebite, wrapping the dog in a warm blanket is MOST likely for what reason?
to try to prevent the dog from going into shock
An animal's chances of surviving poisoning greatly depend on how quickly they get treatment. How can this be a challenge for many pet owners?
The symptoms of poison are similar to symptoms of other issues with pets.
Hearing her Australian shepherd let out a loud, uncharacteristic yelp, Makayla rushes into the room to see what is wrong. Just as she does, she notices a scorpion scurrying up the wall. Quickly, Makayla takes a photo of the scorpion and then runs to see about her dog. When she reaches the vet, he commends her for thinking so quickly. Which sentence BEST explains why the vet might want to see the photo of the scorpion?
The vet might be able to identify the type of scorpion that stung her dog.
Dylan calls his cattle when he puts out their feed. He notices that three young cows are missing so Dylan begins to search the perimeter fences of his pastures, knowing that these three have a tendency to squeeze through the fencing. He is right but unfortunately, too late for the poor calves. Dylan finds them dead under a grove of apple trees. If the cows were to be examined, what would MOST likely be the cause of their death?
Jonas is putting together a small educational program to train farmers in undeveloped lands about taking care of cattle. He is listing several points that a farmer would want to know and trying to explain the reasons behind them. Jonas puts down that a famer would want to ensure that there is no abandoned machinery, equipment, or unused junk littering the fields. He reasons that these might pose a hazard to the cattle. Besides being something they might trip and hurt themselves on, how else might this debris be a hazard?
The cattle might get lead poisoning from licking old machinery.
Charlotte is an inspector for the USDA. She frequently stops in to pork processing plants to examine their facilities and look at their wrapped meat. Charlotte is especially on the lookout for pork that might cause trichinellosis in consumers. Randomly picking samples to examine under her microscope, what is Charlotte MOST likely looking for?
How is the term ectoplasm related to the term ectoparasites?
Ecto means outside, so ectoplasm is outside a cell and ectoparasites live outside the host body.
Ectoparasites, such as heartworms or hookworms, live inside the host.
How long can an adult heartworm live once it has embedded in a host body?
Kiara is a veterinary parasitologist who is working on finding a solution to the spread of heartworm in dogs. She believes that she has engineered an agent that prevents the larvae from developing once it has burrowed into the subcutaneous skin of the host. If Kiara were interviewed by a news agency about her work, how would she MOST likely explain it?
"I am working on an insecticide that interrupts the life cycle of the heartworm parasite."
A trichinellosis infection begins when an animal eats larvae that is present in the muscle of another animal.
Jasmine attends a class reunion for her veterinary school. Several of her classmates run veterinary practices of their own, one works for the government to oversee livestock health, and one specializes in exotic animals and is now working for a large zoo. Jasmine spends her days in a lab, using different formulas to prevent the growth of microfilariae into larvae. Which field would Jasmine MOST likely tell her classmates that she has specialized in?
Ava is a veterinarian who is examining an English springer spaniel named Ben. According to his owner, Ben has been losing weight and experiencing green, watery diarrhea. Ava asks if Ben ever plays near ponds or backwater, to which the owner confirms that there is a pond on the back part of his property. Ava believes that Ben has become infected with giardia. To confirm her diagnosis, what would Ava MOST likely expect to find in the dog's stool sample??
Santiago is a veterinarian who always tries to make sure he recommends medications that are the best fit for his patients and their owners. Knowing the pros and cons of topical flea treatments, to which owner will Santiago MOST likely recommend a topical formula?
a 35-year-old writer whose poodle rarely goes outside except for walks
Jordan had to be treated for hookworms more than once during her childhood. Which habit MOST likely made Jordan susceptible to this parasite?
She frequently ran around barefooted.
A poor dog is brought in with large patches of its skin exposed and crusted. The owner tells Jared that he has other dogs who do not have this issue. The poor dog won't stop scratching himself. Jared suspects Canine demodicosis. How is Jared MOST likely going to confirm this diagnosis?
He would likely take a scraping of the skin to look at under a microscope for mites.
Epiparasites are organisms that feed on other parasites.
Which BEST describes the point at which heartworm larvae would be classified as microfilariae?
A mosquito bites a dog that has heartworms, sucking out blood that has heartworm larvae in it.
Davi is a veterinary scientist looking over the body of a dead goat. Davi suspects that the goat died of coccidiosis. What part of the goat's body would Davi expect to find the coccidia that caused this infection?
the goat's cells, by looking through a microscope
How far can a flea jump to propel itself onto a new host?
up to 7 inches vertically and 13 inches horizontally
Mia has a new kitten. She notices that the kitten has a bald spot on the back of its hind leg. To Mia, it almost looks like a scar. Otherwise, her kitten is perfect. When she takes the kitten in to the vet, she points out the little spot. He says that he needs to take a quick skin sample. Judging from his reaction, what does the vet MOST likely think is causing the bald spot?
Piper's cat had fleas and she called the vet to see what she needed to do. She was given a topical treatment to put on her cat. Piper watched as the disgusting fleas began to drop off her cat as they died. Satisfied, she gave it no further thought until a few weeks later, when she saw her cat scratching again. Separating the fur of the fluffy cat, Piper could see more flea dirt! How did the fleas end up back on her cat again?
Piper did not treat the bedding or carpet where flea eggs must have been hiding.
How have scientists found the MOST success in dealing with worms in sheep?
by selectively breeding sheep that are more worm resistant
Mateo is a veterinarian who is asked to look at a six-month-old puppy. The puppy has lost several patches of hair around its hindquarters and stomach. Its owner says that the poor thing is constantly scratching the areas and she is afraid that it will get infected. After examining the pup, Mateo takes a skin scraping of the area without hair. After examining the scraping under a microscope, Mateo prescribes some medication for the puppy and a medicated bath for the owner to give her. He also advises her that if she has any other pets in the home, she should separate them. Based on these findings, what type of parasite infection does this pup MOST likely have?
Some mites are thought to be a normal inhabitant on the skin of many animals, like dogs and cats.
Which parasite is MOST likely to rely on host-to-host contact in order to infect its host?
At veterinary school, Ryan and his classmates are examining the cadaver heart of a dog that was overtaken by heartworms. Disgusted but intrigued, Ryan closely examines the many worms protruding from the dog's arteries. If he were to classify what he was looking at, in which category would Ryan MOST likely put these heartworms?
A feline rescue is constantly battling fleas. Even though volunteers regularly wash and treat bedding for fleas, they still have infestations pop up from time to time. It is difficult with cats coming in and out as they are being rescued and then adopted. The key, they know, is to stop the fleas from hatching! One volunteer suggests running a dehumidifier in the facility, particularly in the area where they keep newly rescued cats. How might this help with the flea issue?
Flea eggs need at least 50 percent humidity to survive so lowering humidity would kill them.
Khalil has a flock of sheep that he has just paid the vet a huge amount of money to deworm. Within just a few months, Khalil's sheep are once again infested with them. What can Khalil do to hopefully prevent the sheep from picking up worms after they are treated this time?
Change the pasture they are in because the first one is contaminated.
Jiao has brought home a new kitten. Before long, she notices that the poor thing is vomiting and experiencing diarrhea. Taking her kitten to the vet, she is told that it has coccidiosis. Where is the MOST likely place that Jiao's kitten picked up the parasite that causes this?
The kitten probably got it from its mother.
Dominic's grandparents have had a cocker spaniel for as long as he can remember. Unfortunately, the poor thing finally passes away. Dominic goes to visit his grandparents to check on them, and while he sits on their couch, he begins to feel something itchy on his legs. Pulling up his pants leg, Dominic sees at least five fleas attacking his skin! He is surprised because in all the years his grandparents had the dog, he never once got bitten by a flea at their house. Which sentence BEST explains the reason that Dominic is now being attacked?
Fleas will only seek out a new host if they absolutely have to.
Aiden must prepare a research paper on an endoparasite that is a common danger to dogs. Which parasite will Aiden MOST likely discuss in his paper?
A stray dog is brought into Destiny's clinic. The poor thing is eaten up with fleas, and she can see that it has terrible sores on its stomach. After giving the dog topical medication to kill the fleas, she also prescribes antibiotics to kill the bacteria in the sores. Which sentence BEST explains how these bacteria were able to infect the poor dog?
The fleas' bites caused itching, leading the dog to scratch the skin and break the surface, providing a home for bacteria.
Which would be an example of how parasites adapt to be able to infect a host that is trying to reject it?
a flea that becomes flat when a cat tries to bite at it
Prisha is doing some research on mites. She is amazed to find out that there are more than 60,000 identified mite species. Some types, like dust mites, feed on dead skin cells, while others, like ear mites feed on ear wax and skin oils. While writing her research paper, Prisha decides that even though mites are annoying parasites, they do perform a function in the world. Prisha decides to focus on this for her paper. Which title would Prisha MOST likely chose for her assignment?
Microscopic Maids Only Trying to Keep Things Clean
A deer that is suffering from an anthrax infection will exhibit bloody diarrhea or bleeding out of other orifices. How does that compare to the rats that are infected with hantavirus?
Rats that carry hantavirus don't show any symptoms of the disease at all.
Julia is a medical examiner preparing to autopsy a man who collapsed while opening his mail. She listens as her assistant reads the notes from the police while she begins to make an incision in the man's chest. Her assistant reads that the man opened an envelope that had no return address, telling his wife that there was nothing but powder inside. Later, he developed fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath before collapsing. Julia immediately thinks of anthrax. If Julia's suspicions are correct, what step will she MOST likely take next?
She will stop the autopsy immediately until she knows for sure that the corpse does not have anthrax.
Veterinary scientists suggest that those at the greatest risk for hantavirus are those living in wet, urban areas.
Cara's cat has ringworm and is given treatment by the veterinarian. What other advice will the vet MOST likely give Cara to prevent another infection?
Make sure to clean all the bedding and surfaces that the cat has been on.
Although they are all zoonotic diseases, which statement BEST describes the difference between ringworm and others such as plague or SARS?
Ringworm is not life-threatening, whereas most others are.
Tomas develops a red, round rash on his foot. One of his friends tells him that it looks like ringworm. Tomas has never heard of ringworm and quickly makes an appointment with the doctor to have it taken care of. When the doctor is examining Tomas, he asks her how he would have been exposed to ringworm. Which is MOST likely a way that Tomas could have contracted it?
He could have walked barefoot in the hot water park over the summer.
As a scientist at the CDC, part of Omar's job is to make sure that the samples of dangerous virus and bacteria are catalogued and safely stored. A scientist wants to check out one petri dish containing Yersinia pestis bacteria. She must get it from Omar, who documents her use. Which disease is the scientist MOST likely studying to need this type of sample?
Izaak works for a local news agency. Local authorities reach out to Izaak and ask him to run a brief article reminding ranch owners in the area to have their horses vaccinated against West Nile virus. Izaak does some research to include in his article, including the fact that the West Nile virus is spread by mosquitos. Which fact would Izaak MOST likely include in the short article for horse owners?
Mosquitos can also transmit West Nile virus to humans.
Considering the majority of coronaviruses that scientists have identified, which is MOST likely about COVID-19?
It came from some type of animal.
Meera notices an itchy, red circle on her upper arm. Concerned, she sees her doctor. The doctor begins to get out his black light but even as he is looking through the drawer, he tells Meera that he is almost sure she has ringworm. If this is confirmed, how will her doctor MOST likely treat it?
He will prescribe an anti-fungal cream to be applied to Meera's arm.
Olivia is a veterinary parasitologist who is studying a recent outbreak of giardia among beavers in a Colorado river. Since this is the first time she has seen beavers with this type of protozoa, Olivia is attempting to trace where they contracted it. After extensive testing, it is found that human sewage was leaking from a treatment plant nearby. This sewage contained the giardia protozoa, and the beavers picked it up in the nearby waters. Olivia now writes a research paper concerning this case in order to reclassify giardia. After her investigations, into what category is Olivia MOST likely hoping to place these protozoa in?
A group of scholars, religious officials, and scientists meet to discuss just who is to blame for the plague. Several opinions are put forward, from those who said it was sent by God, to those who blamed minorities, to those who believed it was black cats in Europe. During this discussion, one person says loudly, "I have found the source and I have verified it through scientific research. Fleas are the carriers of this plague that is upon us." Who would this voice have MOST likely belonged to?
Since it is the dry summer in the southwest United States, forest ranger Felipe is designing a poster to be handed out at the entrance to all National Parks in the area. The poster will concern hantavirus, warning prospective campers of the danger. Felipe lists the ways that a camper might come into contact with hantavirus. Which example would Felipe NOT put on his poster?
being in close contact with another person who has it
There is no denying that the Black Death was a serious and deadly disease since it managed to wipe out much of the population alive at the time. In what way is this disease different than other serious pandemics, such as SARS or the Spanish flu?
It was caused by bacteria instead of a virus.
Fatema is a veterinary scientist who is speaking with a colleague. She tells him that she is currently studying zoonotic disease in order to pinpoint the moment that the disease mutates to make the jump from animals to humans. Considering her topic, what question will her colleague MOST likely ask?
Which zoonotic disease?
Brian's Irish setter is having respiratory issues. Preferring to explore alternative treatments, Brian seeks out the help of a veterinary acupuncturist. As the specialist listens to Brian describe his pet's illness and recent asthma attacks, she begins to formulate a treatment plan for the dog. Which is MOST likely the course of treatment that will be necessary for Brian's asthmatic pup?
The dog should come for treatments every few days at first and then taper off as he improves.
Dean is studying ancient India and is surprised to find an ancient painting showing acupuncture being used in the treatment of animals. He cannot read the inscription of the painting but what if Dean were asked to give it a name, which would he MOST likely choose?
Preparing War Elephants for Battle
Jonas is a phytotherapist who is asked how much slippery elm bark to administer to a dog having diarrhea. When Jonas tells the owner how much he should administer, the owner says, 'Wow, my other vet always recommended much more!' Which issue with the use of herbal remedies in animals does this exchange BEST illustrate?
There is no standardized dose with many herbal treatments.
Isla has just graduated from veterinary school. She decides that she would like to also study acupuncture to be able to treat her animal patients that way. She finds a good program and begins her education. Hearing about Isla's interest, a local veterinary office reaches out to her because they are looking to have a staff member who can perform acupuncture. They wonder when Isla will be available for work. How long will it MOST likely take before Isla's education is finished and she is ready to begin working?
It will likely be several months before Isla is ready to work.
Julia notices that her cat, Grimaldi, suddenly does not seem to be able to close his mouth completely. At first, she thinks he is panting because he is hot but after Grimaldi refuses to eat for a few days, Julia makes an appointment to see her vet. The vet looks closely at Grimaldi's mouth and inside his ears. He tells Julia that it appears Grimaldi has a dislocation of his temporomandibular joint. In other words, Grimaldi has dislocated his jaw! Which type of alternative treatment will Julia's vet MOST likely recommend for Grimaldi?
Omar is at a veterinary trade show. He is intrigued by a booth touting a natural oil that the manufacturer claims will repel heartworm. Skeptical, Omar approaches the booth to ask the salesman a few questions. As he discusses the science behind the product, Omar admits to the salesman that he tends to use conventional medicine and procedures with his patients. Which would BEST describe the type of veterinary medicine that Omar practices?
Greta's dog has developed epilepsy as she's gotten older. Since the dog has always been resistant to taking oral medication, it is difficult for Greta to keep her on anti-epileptic drugs. One of her friends tells her about a veterinarian that treated her own dog. She explained that the vet would use tiny needles to stick just under the skin in certain places. The friend told Greta that this treatment greatly cut down on the episodes of seizures that her own dog had. When Greta calls the veterinary practice, which service will she MOST likely inquire about?
Hydrotherapy for dogs typically involves warmer water than for horses.
In explaining why an acupuncture needle should be placed on a specific spot, Emiyo's acupuncturist tells her that they must unblock the meridian. Which statement BEST explains what Emiyo's acupuncturist means by that?
The flow of energy through the channels can sometimes become blocked.
Mark owns several expensive racehorses. One of the horses has recently had to sit out because it is limping on its left hind end. Mark heard from another horse owner that chiropractic care can sometimes help horses with these kinds of issues. He thinks of his own chiropractor and decides to give the man a call. Can you predict the MOST likely outcome for Mark's horse if his chiropractor were to come out and adjust it?
If this chiropractor is not trained in equine health, he might cause damage to the horse's spine.
Ling's grandmother is teaching her the ancient practice of acupuncture. She tells Ling that a tiny needle must be inserted right into the acupuncture point in order to unblock the flow of energy. When Ling's grandmother refers to the spot where the needle should be placed, which word will she MOST likely use?
Imani is a holistic veterinarian who gets a call about a cat with a burnt leg. The owner says that she was pouring tea just as the cat jumped up on the coffee table and some of the hot water splashed onto the poor cat's leg. She describes a slight patch of hair loss but does not think that there are blisters forming on the area. Imani tells the owner to get a slice of fresh aloe and apply it to the area. She says that this should cool the burn and help prevent any infection. What directions will Imani also give the owner before hanging up?
She will advise her to keep the cat from licking the aloe on the burn.
Jayla has begun to use lavender and chamomile essential oils in her bedroom to help her relax and sleep better. Last night, there was a terribly loud thunderstorm. Jayla was very surprised when her two basset hounds did not yelp and whine to be let onto the bed with her. How might the new oils be related to the way the basset hounds rode out the storm?
Just as the aromatherapy was relaxing to Jayla, it also could have calmed her dogs.
Felipe's cocker spaniel, Harvey, has gained weight and stopped wanting to go out for walks. Felipe takes him to be examined by his veterinarian, who performs some tests on Harvey. After the test results are in, the vet explains to Felipe that Harvey is having thyroid issues. He offers Felipe two possible treatments. First, the vet offers to put Harvey on a small dose of thyroid medicine. Harvey is not a fan of taking medicine, so Felipe asks about the other treatment. Which alternative treatment will the vet MOST likely recommend for Harvey?
Dylan is an allopathic veterinarian having a debate with a colleague who is more into phytotherapy. Dylan's colleague touts the use of natural remedies because they are made from plants and herbs. Dylan uses prescription medication with his patients when he finds it necessary. Which statement would Dylan MOST likely use to find common ground with his colleague?
Prescription medication is often made from an existing herb or plant.
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