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Psych 311 Exam 2
Chapters 4, 5, and 6
Terms in this set (57)
How many major emotional categories are there?
6 - Happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear and disgust
response coherent postulate
Theories of emotion: James-Lange
The brain is interpreting and responding to physiological changes
Theories of emotion: Canon - Bard
Direct challenge to above. Emotions and physiological arousal happen simultaneously but are independant of one another
Two-Factor Theory of emotion: Schacter and Singer
The subjective experience of emotion is based on the interaction between changes in physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal
How were the six emotional categories developed?
What is emotional intensity?
degree to which people usually experience their emotion. high intensity = react more strongly. low intensity = react more mildly
What is emotional expressiveness?
a persons outward display of emotion.
Cultural differences in terms of emotions and expressiveness?
americans are more expressive than most other cultures.
circumplex model of emotion
valence and arousal are separate dimensions of emotion, and distinct emotions represent intersections along these dimensions
Emotions from an evolutionary perspective
Helped us to be able to recognize and survive physical an social threats.
How do emotions influence social relationships and our perceptions?
emotions inform others when we need help and inform us when others need help. they also help foster relationships and social structures. oxytocin
moral foundations theory
a theory proposing that there are 5 evolved, universal moral domains in which specific emotions guide moral judgments. Care vs harm, fairness vs cheating, loyalty vs betrayal, authority vs subversion, purity vs degradation
the tendency for people to overestimate how events will make them feel in the future
the tendency for people to underestimate their capacity to be resilient in responding to difficult life events, which leads them to overestimate the extent to which life's problems will reduce their personal well-being
tendency to focus on only the initial response or the peak emotional moment of an experience or event when trying to predict future emotions
attitudes that we hold consciously and can readily describe
attitudes that influence a person's feelings and behavior at an unconscious level
strength of attitude
A strong attitude is an attitude that is usually thought about, well known and easily accessible. It also tends to be personally relevant and have a strong underlying emotional component.
(affect) based on feeling not facts, (behavior) observations, (cognition) usually objective
Theory of Planned Behavior
A theory stating that the best predictor of a behavior is one's behavioral intention, which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior.
an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
argues that when actions or thoughts don't line up with their self-concept, people experience mental discomfort
Festinger and Carlsmith
These two psychologists conducted a study where after completing a boring task some participants were paid $1 and others were paid $20 to convince others waiting to do the same task that it was fun and interesting. Those paid $1 rated it as interesting while the group that was paid $20 rated the task no differently than a control group.
3 ways to reduce dissonance
1. Change your behavior to bring it in line with the dissonant attitude
2. Justify your behavior by changing the dissonant attitude
3. Justify your behavior by adding consonant attitudes
4 reasons to reduce dissonance
Need for Justification
internal vs external justifications
The arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior.
Heider's theory that people prefer harmony and consistency in their views of the world
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
system justification theory
a theory that proposes that people are motivated (at least in part) to defend and justify the existing social, political, and economic conditions
elaboration likelihood model
theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route
Yale Attitude Change Approach
The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of resistance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the prohibited behavior
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
compliance and acceptance
Two types of conformity?
informational social influence
the influence of other people that results from taking their comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct, proper, or effective
need for accuracy
people want to understand and predict their world as accurately as possible
normative social influence
behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval, because we want them to like us.
social impact theory
the idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, immediacy, and the number of people in the group
Conducted "shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience
Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.
strategies that may manipulate you into saying yes when you really want to say no
asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment
People are much more likely to agree to a large request if they first agree to a smaller one
how do emotions influence compliance?
positive mood makes it more likely that we will comply, as does a negative mood (negative state relief hypothesis) if we think it will make us feel better.
the case where a minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority
an organized group of people with an obsessive devotion to a person or set of principles, usually non mainstream religious
Cult Recruitment Techniques
characteristics of cult leaders
characteristics of cult members
political affiliation and conformity
Culture and Body Image
Cultural notions of the body shape daily behaviors and domestic organization
Culturally defined notions of beauty change over time and vary cross-culturally
Culture influences how we perceive our bodies and natural abilities
Gender and body image
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Richard A. Kasschau
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Describe G. Stanley Hall’s theory of adolescence. Does the research of Margaret Mead support his position? Explain.
In classical conditioning. a person learns to anticipate events by a. associating a response with its consequence. b. avoiding spontaneous recovery. c. using operant behaviors. d. associating two stimuli. e. employing cognitive learning.
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus a. naturally triggers a response. b. is a naturally occurring response. c. is initially neutral, and then comes to trigger a response. d. prompts spontaneous recovery. e. is a reward offered for completing a behavior.
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