23 terms

APUSH Chapter 2 Key Terms

Enduring Vision 6e Ch. 2
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savanna
Rich grasslands where West African civilizations prospered
Renaissance
"Rebirth" of classical Greek and Roman culture that swept Europe from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century
enclosure
English practice of fencing off what had been common grazing land; left many peasants impoverished
joint-stock company
Forerunner of modern corporation; way to raise large sums of money by selling shares in an enterprise
Protestant Reformation
Split of reformers from Roman Catholic church; triggered by Martin Luther
John Calvin
Early Protestant theologian who believed in "predestination"
Puritans
English followers of Calvin, dissenters from established Church of England
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
Member of Portuguese royal family who encouraged exploration of Africa, searched for routes to Asia
"new slavery"
Harsh form of slavery based on racism; arose as a result of Portuguese slave trade with Africa
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement in which Portugal and Spain divided between them all future discoveries in the non-Christian world
John Cabot
Italian explorer who established English claims to the New World
Hernán Cortés
Spanish conqueror of Aztec empire
"Columbian exchange"
Exchange of people, plants, animals within the Atlantic world as a result of European voyages
Roanoke
Site of first English attempt to New World colonization; failure
Virginia Company of Plymouth
Received charter to establish colonies from Chesapeake Bay northward
Virginia Company of London
Received charter to establish colonies from Chesapeake Bay southward; found Jamestown
Jamestown
First successful English colony; established in 1607
John Smith
Soldier of fortune who "saved" Jamestown by establishing order, good relations with Indians
John Rolfe
Brought tobacco to Jamestown, thus ensuring its economic survival
House of Burgesses
First elected representatives legislature in New World, in Virginia; first met in 1619
Plymouth
Colony established by Pilgrims in Massachusetts
Mayflower Compact
Agreement signed by Pilgrims to govern themselves
New Amsterdam
Dutch colony that would become New York
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