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69 terms

Language of Medicine Chap 14

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Acquired Immunity
production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
Adenoids
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx
Antibody
Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens
Antigen
substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most are proteins or protein fragments
Axillary Nodes
lymph nodes in the armpit
B Cell
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
Cervical Nodes
Lymph nodes in the neck region
Complement System
Proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T-cells kill their target.
Cytokines
Proteins that aid and regulate the immune response
Cytotoxic T cell
T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells
Dendritic Cell
Specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction.
Helper T cell
Lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulates antibody production
Immunity
Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural and acquired.
Immunoglobulins
Antibodies that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen
Immunotherapy
Use of immune cells, antibodies or vaccines to treat of prevent disease.
Inguinal Nodes
Lymph nodes in the groin region
Interferons
Proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response
Interleukins
Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid in the spaces between the cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.
Lymph
Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body.
Lymph Capillaries
Tiniest lymphatic vessels
Lymphoid Organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland
Lymph node
A collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels
Lymph Vessel
Carrier of lymph throughout the body; empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest.
Macrophage
Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues
Mediastinal Nodes
Lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic cavity
Monoclonal Antibody
Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells
Natural Immunity
Protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.
Plasma Cell
Lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies.
Right Lymphatic Duct
Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.
Spleen
Organ near the stomach that produces, stores and eliminates blood cells.
Suppressor T cell
Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes
T cell
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; works by destroying antigens or producing chemicals which are toxic to antigens.
Tolerance
The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as self or friendly.
Thoracic Duct
Large Lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm.
Thymus gland
Organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.
Tonsils
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx
Toxin
Poison
Vaccination
Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection.
Vaccine
Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease.
Immuno/o
protection
Lymph/o
lymph
Lymphaden/o
lymph node
Splen/o
spleen
Thym/o
thymus gland
Tox/o
poison
Ana-
again, anew
Inter-
between
AIDS
Group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems
Allergy
Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
Lymphoma
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue
Hodgkin Disease
Malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes
Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
B cell lymphomas
Multiple Myeloma
Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
Thyoma
Malignant tumor of the thymus gland
Allergen
Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body
Anaphylaxis
Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substances
Atopy
Hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition
CD4+ cells
helper T cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing the protein
HIV
virus that causes aids
Kaposi Sarcoma
Malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown, or black skin nodules
Opportunistic Infections
infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained
Protease Inhibitor
drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps to create new viral pieces for HIV
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor
drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV
Wasting Symdrome
weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity
CD4+ cell count
Measures the number of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream of patients with AIDS
ELISA
Screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream
Immunoelectrophoresis
Test the separates immunoglobulins
Viral Load Test
Measurement of the amount of AIDS virus in the bloodstream