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Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Neural Cortex
Superficial layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum
Cerebrum
Seat of most higher mental functions. Conscious thoughts, sensations, intellect, memory, and complex movements all originate here
Hypothalamus
Contains centers associated with emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
Diencephalon
A structural and functional link between the cerebral hemispheres and the components of the brain stem
Mesencephalon
Contains nuclei that process visual and auditory information and control reflexes triggered by these stimuli
Pituitary Gland
Responsible for the integration of the nervous and endocrine systems
Pons
Relays sensory information to the cerebellum and thalamus. Includes tracts and relay centers, as well as nuclei involved with somatic and visceral motor control
Cerebellum
Coordinates complex somatic motor patterns. Adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
Medulla Oblongata
Coordinates complex autonomic reflexes and controls visceral functions
Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, and Rhombencephalon
The three primary brain vesicles
Prosencephalon
Forms the Telencephalon and the Diencephalon
Telencephalon
Becomes the Cerebrum
Rhombencephalon
Becomes the Metencephalon and the Myelencephalon
Metencephalon
Becomes the Cerebellum and Pons
Myelencephalon
Becomes the Medulla Oblongata
Functions of CSF
Cushioning delicate neural structures, supporting the brain, transportation of nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
Choroid Plexus
Produces and regulates CSF (ependymal cells in this object are responsible for it)
Internal Carotid Arteries and Vertebral Arteries
Provides the brain with arterial blood
Epidural Hemorrhage
When blood is forced between the dura mater and the cranium
Blood Brain Barrier
Isolates the brain's neural tissue from general circulation
Nucleus Gracilis and Nucleus Cuneatus
Pass somatic sensory information to the thalamus
Solitary Nucleus
Receives visceral sensory information
Olivary Nuclei
Relays information about somatic motor commands
Cardiac, Vasomotor, and Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers
The three reflex centers of the medulla oblongata
Cardiac Center (of Medulla Oblongata)
Regulates heart rate and force of contraction
Vasomotor Center (of Medulla Oblongata)
Regulates the distribution of blood flow
Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers (of Medulla Oblongata)
Sets the pace of respiratory movements
Reticular Formation
Gray matter with embedded nuclei that regulates autonomic functions
7-12 but not 8
Cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata
Gyri
Elevated ridges in the cerebral cortex
Sulci
Shallow depressions in the cerebral cortex
Cerebellum
Part of the brain that coordinates repetitve body movements
Diencephalon
Links the cerebrum with the brain stem
Diencephalon
Left thalamus, right thalamus, and hypothalamus are parts of which part of the brain
Hypothalamus
This is responsible for hormone production, emotion, and autonomic functions
Pituitary Gland
Major endocrine gland that interfaces the nervous and endocrine systems
Brain Stem
This processes information between the spinal cord and the cerebrum or cerebellum
Mesencephalon
Processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes as well as maintaining consciousness
Septum Pellucidum
A thin medial partition that separates the lateral ventricles
Origins of Ventricles
Neural tube encloses neurocoel, which then expands to form chambers (ventricles) lined with ependymal cells
Interventricular Foramen
The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle by this
Aqueduct of Midbrain
Connects the third and fourth ventricles
Association Areas
Integrate diverse information
Opposite Side
Cerebral hemispheres receives sensory information from, and sends motor commands to which side of the body
Primary Motor Cortex
Directs voluntary movements
Pyramidal Cells
Neurons of the primary motor cortex that form the corticospinal tract
Premotor cortex
Controls learned, repetitious and pattern motor skills. coordinates simultaneous and sequential actions, and is involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback
Broca's Area
Speech center that is present in only one hemisphere, this directs the muscles of the tongue and is active as one prepares to speak
Frontal Eye Field
Controls Voluntary eye movements
Primary Sensory Cortex
Receives somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste, and temperature) and is capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being stimulated
Somatosensory Association Area
Integrates sensory input from the primary somatosensory cortex and allows us to determine the size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt
Primary Visual Cortex
Receives visual information from the retinas
Visual Association Area
Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (e.g. color, form, movment)
Primary Auditory Cortex
Interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location
Auditory Association Area
Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds
Primary Olfactory Cortex
Region of conscious awareness of odors; part of the primitive rhinencephalon, along with the olfactory bulbs and tracts and the remainder of the rhinencephalon in humans is part of the limbic system
Primary Gustatory Cortex
Located in the insula, this is involved in the perception of taste
Visceral Sensory Area
Located posterior to the gustatory cortex, this is involved in the conscious perception of visceral sensations like an upset stomach or full bladder
Vestibular Cortex
The posterior part of the insula and adjacent parietal cortex, this is responsible for conscious awareness of balance
Multimodal Association Areas
These receive input from multiple sensory areas and send outputs to multiple areas, including the premotor cortex
Multimodal Association Areas
These allow us to give meaning to information received, store it as memory, and compare it to previous experience and decide on action to take
Anterior Association Area (Prefrontal Cortex)
Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality, this contains working memory needed for judgement reasoning, persistence, and conscience, and its development depends on feed back from the social environment
Posterior Association Area
Plays a role in recognizing patterns and faces and localizing us in space, as well as being involved in understanding written and spoken language (wernicke's area)
Limbic Association Area
This is part of the limibic system and it provides emotional impact that helps establish memories
Left
The dominant cerebral hemisphere in most people
Left
The cerebral hemisphere responsible for reading, writing, math, logic, decision making, speech, and language
Right
The cerebral hemisphere responsible for senses, recognition, insight, visual-spatial skills, intuition, and artistic skills
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Assesses brain activity (waves) via electrodes placed on the skull
Alpha Waves
Type of brain waves found in healthy, awake adults at rest with eyes closed
Beta Waves
Higher frequency brain waves that are found in adults that are either concentrating or are mentally stressed
Theta Waves
Brain waves found in children and intensely frustrated adults; may indicate a brain disorder in adults
Delta Waves
Brain waves found during sleep or in awake adults with brain damage
Synchronization
A pacemaker mechanism that synchronizes electrical activity between the cerebral hemispheres
White Matter of the Cerebrum
Association, commissural, and projection fibers make up what matter in the cerebrum
Arcuate Fibers
These are short association fibers that connect one gyrus to another
Longitudinal Fasciculi
These are longer bundles of association fibers that connect the frontal lobe to other lobes in the same hemisphere
Commisural Fibers
Bands of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres (ie the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum)
Projection Fibers
Fibers that pass through the diencephalon and link the cerebral cortex with the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord
Internal Capsule
This is made up of all ascending and descending projection fibers and is part of the cerebrum
Basal Nuclei
Masses of gray matter that are embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum and direct subconscious activites
Caudate Nucleus
Curving basal nuclei with a slender tail
Lentiform Nucleus
Basal nucleus made of the globus pallidus and the putamen
Basal Nuclei
These are involved in the subconscious control of skeletal muscle ton and the coordination of learned movement patterns (walking, lifting)