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Anatomy & Physiology I Chapter 4: Tissues
Terms in this set (76)
Increase in cell number; example: Women's monthly cycle
Increase in cell size; example: weight lifting
Uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells
Decrease in cell size
Death of tissue due to disease or injury
Normal cell death
Tissue can't divide; forms scar tissue with collagen
Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells; example: the liver
Nervous Tissue Function
4. Transmit signals throughout the body
Nerve cells; Body = Soma; Processes = Axon, Dendrites
Supportive cells of the nervous system
Muscle Tissue Function
Smooth Muscle Tissue
-Involuntary muscle tissue
-Found in organ walls
-Short, spindled, non-striated, and uninucleated
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
-Involuntary muscle tissue
-Found only in the heart
-Short, branched, striated, and uninucleated
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
-Voluntary muscle tissue
-Long, cylindrical, striated, and multinucleated
Connective Tissue Functions
1. Structural framework
2. Transport fluids and dissolved materials
3. Protect delicate organs
4. Support, surround, and interconnect tissues
5. Store energy
6. Defend the body
Connective Tissue Proper
Includes connective tissues with many types of cells and extracellular fibers in a gel-like ground substance.
Loose Connective Tissue
-Fibers created a loose, open framework
-Most common form of connective tissue proper
-The general packing material in the body
-Function: Support and binding of other tissues
-Location: Blood vessels & skin
-Function: stores energy as fat, cushion internal organs, & insulate the body
-Location: Found all over the body
-Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers
-Function: provide structural support in the lymphoid organs
-Location: kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, & bone marrow
Dense Connective Tissues
-Fibers are densely packed together
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
-Collagen fibers are oriented parallel to each other
-Function: Connect muscle to bones & bones to bones
-Location: Tendons & ligaments
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
-Collagen fibers in various orientations
-Location: Dermis of the skin & eyeball
Fluid Connective Tissue
-Connective tissue made of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
-Red blood cells - a.k.a. erythrocytes; transport oxygen
-White blood cells - a.k.a. leukocytes; help defend the body from infection
-Platelets - a.k.a. thrombocytes; blood clotting
Supporting Connective Tissue
-Amorphous matrix, fibers not visible. Strongest, most abundant cartilage
-Location: Connects the ribs to the sternum (costal cartilage)
-Covers the articular surfaces of long bones, trachea
-Forms the embryonic skeleton.
-Has many more elastic fibers within the matrix. Most flexible cartilage
-Location: Found in the external ear and epiglottis
-Very tough form of cartilage
-Location: Meniscus of knee, pubis symphysis and outside of intervertebral disks
Durable, hard, calcified matrix; contains osteocytes
Specialized Connective Tissue Cells
In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.
Cells that secrete cartilage.
Cells that release chemicals that promote inflammation
Connective Tissue Fibers
Fibrous protein within connective tissue that contains a high percentage of the protein elastin that allows the fibers to stretch and return to original size
A protein substance found in bone and cartilage; provides flexibility and strength
Fibers found near blood vessels that add strength and support
Unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers
Glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream
-Secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
-Cells remain intact
-Secretes through vesicles
-Entire cell ruptures
-Only half the cell is lost
Epithelial Tissue Functions
1. Physical protection.
2. Control permeability.
3. Provide sensation.
4. Produce secretions are called glands.
Simple Squamous Epithelium
-Description: single layer of flattened cells, disc-shaped central nuclei, sparse cytoplasm.
-Function: allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important. Also secretes lubricant.
-Locations: Kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, capillaries, linings of heart
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
-Description: thick layers of flattened cells; often keratinized layer and a mitotic layer.
-Function: protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion
-Location: non-keratinized type lines the mouth and vagina; keratinized type forms the epidermis of skin.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
-Description: single layer of cube-like cells with large spherical centrally located nuclei.
-Function: secretion and absorption
-Locations: Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of glands
Simple Columnar Epithelium
-Description: single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; may contain goblet cells that produce mucus; may contain microvilli.
-Function: absorption; secretion of mucus and enzymes; cilia propel substances.
-Location: digestive tract
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
-Description: single layer of cells of differing heights so that nuclei are a differing levels; contains goblet cells and cilia.
-Function: secretion, propulsion by ciliary action.
-Location: lines much of respiratory tract.
-Description: resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal. Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar; surface cells are dome shaped.
-Function: stretches readily and permits distension.
-Location: Lines urethra, ureters and bladder
The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner
Fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane of apical epithelial cells, increase surface area, aid in absorbtion, exist on every moist epithelia, but most dense in small intestine and kidney
To have three sides
Space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
Cells at the base of an epithelial layer are attached to this
Tightly packed cells
Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
Provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart
Without blood vessels
Study of tissues
Study of disease
-The outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
-Middle germ layer; develops into muscles, and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems
-The inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
-Membrane that secretes mucus that lubricates the surface of organs and keeps them moist.
-Line body cavities that open to the exterior environment, include the digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive tracts.
Line cavities of the body that do not open to the outside, and cover the organs located within those cavities
Exposed to the external environment, covered with dead cells to provide protection / prevent dehydration (skin)
Line freely movable joints
4 Types of Tissue
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