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9th Grade Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (32)
The switch from nomadic lifestyles to a settled agricultural lifestyle is this revolution.
Indus River Valley Civilization
an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River in what is now Pakistan and western India. This civilization is also sometimes referred to as the Harappan or Harappa-Mohenjodaro Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to the excavated cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires.
The first written code of law. Created by Hammurabi, king of Babylon. Punishments were very strict.
(221-207 BCE) The first centralized dynasty of China that used Legalism as its base of belief.
(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalim.
Tang and Song Dynasties
golden age in China remembered for porcelain, block printing, gunpowder, and the compass
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam.
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
an empire that, at its height, around 200 C.E., spanned the Mediterranean world and most of Europe
Excellent, durable roads, Strong bridges, Aqueducts to move water, Building designs that inspired later societies
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Largest religion in the world (2 billion people); derived from Judaism; monotheistic/universal; predominate in North America, Europe, South America, and Australia; 3 main branches- Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox.
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
Also known as the medieval period, the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
1500 B.C. to 900 A.D. This is the most advanced civilization of the time in the Western Hempishere. Famous for its awe-inspiring temples, pyramids and cities. A complex social and political order.
Ancient civilization (1200-1521AD) that was located in what is present-day Mexico City. Used Chinampas
Located in South America, specifically the Andes Mountains, shared many characteristics with previous Mesoamerican peoples and was short lived before being conquered by Europeans.
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
• West African kingdoms that built wealth and power through trans-Saharan trade of salt and gold
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
Peter the Great
This was the tsar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
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"To understand political Power right, and derive it from its Original, we must consider, what State all Men are naturally in, and that is, a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions, and dispose of their Possessions, and Persons as they think fit, within the Bounds of the Law of Nature, without asking Leave, or depending upon the Will of any other Man. A State also of Equality wherein all the Power and Jurisdiction is Reciprocal, no one having more than another; there being nothing more evident, than that the Creatures of the same Species and Rank, promiscuously born to all the same advantages of Nature, and the use of the same Faculties, should also be equal one amongst another without Subordination or Subjection, unless the Lord and Master of them all should by any Manifest Declaration of his Will set one above another, and confer on him, by an evident and clear Appointment, an undoubted Right to Dominion and Sovereignty. But though this be a State of Liberty yet it is not a State of License; though Man in that State have an uncontroulable Liberty, to dispose of his Person or Possessions..." -from John Locke's Two Treatises of Government. What does Locke consider true freedom? A. The ability to act as one sees fit without permission from anyone else, B. The condition of one person having more power than anyone else, C. The right of one person to be the leader over all others, D. A condition that comes from government rather than nature.