34 terms

Chapter 1: New World Beginnings

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role/impact of corn
-Developed in 5000 B.C., the cultivation of corn, or maize, was the tool that transformed the native populations of Mesoamerica (Aztecs) and South America (Incas) from nomadic hunters to settled village dwellers.
-The spread of corn was a main factor that led to the development and sophistication of North America's native tribes (Pueblos, Anasazis).
-It is therefore considered the foundation of complex American society.
Pueblo peoples
-Tribe of Native Americans who lived in the Río Grande Valley in what is now the Southwestern United States.
-Developed intricate irrigation system when corn cultivation reached the Southwest around 2000 B.C.
-At the time of their contact with the Spanish (16th century) they lived in sophisticated villages with multistoried buildings.
three-sister farming
-Complex and efficient method of crop cultivation involving the "Three Sisters" of agriculture: corn, squash and beans.
-Beans would grow on the trellis of cornstalks; squash would cover the planting mounds and keep soil moist.
-Reached the North American Atlantic seaboard around 1000 B.C.
-Helped the Creek, Choctaw and Cherokee Indians achieve some of the continent's highest population densities.
Iroquois Confederation
-Started by a peoples located in the northwestern woodlands in the 1500s.
-Inspired by Hiawatha, a leader from legends, they formed a military alliance that resembled the Aztec and Incan empires more closely than any other Indian organization in North America.
-This alliance bound together Indian nations: the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas.
-Proud league that initially vied for territorial supremacy with its neighbours, then later with the French, English, and Dutch for control of fur trade.
caravel
-A ship developed by Portuguese sailors in the first half of the 15th century that could sail more closely into the wind than previously used ships.
-Allowed for the first European nautical journeys around Africa; opened up a new world beyond the formerly ominous Saharan barrier.
plantation system
-The agricultural system that was most widely used, especially in the New World, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, involving large farms of cash crops such as sugar cane and cotton.
-First explored in the last half of the 15th century when Portuguese explorers would bring slaves from Africa to work on sugar plantations on Africa's coastal islands. In this practice lay the origins of the overwhelming use of African slave labor that would become standard for many years in the New World.
Bartholomew Dias
(1450-1500) Portuguese explorer whose search for a water route to Asia led him around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488.
-He was the first European to sail around Africa in this way; his voyage paved the way for a direct sea trade with India and Asia, ending the necessity for land trade and its expensive middlemen.
Vasco da Gama
(1460?-1524) Portuguese explorer who was commander of the first ships to ever sail directly from Europe to India.
-Reached India in 1498 returning with a collection of jewels and spices.
-This first trip to India would not be the last for the Europeans.
-His trip may have inspired Christopher Columbus to search for a more direct route to Asia, resulting in the discovery of the New World.
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) The famous Italian explorer who, financed by the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, sailed in the name of Spain across the Atlantic ocean in search for a westward water route to Asia.
-Although he was not the first to land in the New World (the Norse were the first), his was the first official "discovery" of America in that it was made known to all of Europe for the first time
-Provoked European conquerors to sail westward and change the fate of the New World forever.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
-The a royal married marriage that changed Spain's history.
-They united the kingdom of Spain with their marriage in 1469. They then expelled the Muslim Moors and made Spain a fully Catholic nation once again.
-This unity led to a Spanish national consciousness and pride which inspired the conquistadores to lead Europe in the New World conquest.
Columbian Exchange
-The transfer of plants and animals, goods, and diseases between the Native Americans and the European explorers that occurred when they clashed in the New World.
-The exchange brought new animals and crops to the New World, such as horses and sugar cane; more important was the drastic effect of European diseases, which killed 90% of the Native Americans in the following centuries.
-Crops and syphilis were also introduced to the Old World; potatoes, for example, transformed the European diet.
Treaty of Tordesillas
-The treaty signed by Spain and Portugal in 1494. In it the two nations divided between themselves the rights to land in the New World.
-Signed to prevent unnecessary warfare in the claiming of the valuable New World land, which was largely fertile and rich in gold and silver.
-Led to Spain's ownership of most of South America and its New World dominance, as well as the Portuguese influence on Brazil.
Conquistador
-One of many Spanish conquerors who claimed lands for Spain in their explorations of the New World in the 16th and early 17th centuries.
-Main motives were gold, public esteem and, for some, service to God. (gold, glory, and God)
Vasco Nunez Balboa
(1474-1519) The famous conquistador who is credited as the first person to have reached the Pacific Ocean from the New World.
-In 1513, he crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed all of the lands touched by the ocean for his king.
-Important for his definite discovery that two oceans, as opposed to one, lay between Europe and Asia. The ocean touched by Europe's west coast was not the same as the one touched by Asia's east coast.
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521) Portuguese explorer who set sail from Spain in 1519 on the first voyage that would circumnavigate the globe.
-Sailed around the southern end of South America through what is now known as the Strait of Magellan, but was slain by the inhabitants of the Philippines in 1521.
-One of his ships did make it back home in 1522, completing the world's first global circumnavigation.
Juan Ponce de Leon
(1474-1521) Spanish explorer who led explorations in Florida, which he named, in 1513 and 1521.
-Having traveled from Puerto Rico, where he served as governor for a time, he at first thought Florida was another island.
-Associated with the legend of the mythical Fountain of Youth, however he was more likely seeking gold.
-He was killed by an Indian arrow on his second trip to Florida.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
(1510-1554) Conquistador who journeyed to New Mexico and other areas in what is now the southwestern United States from 1540 to 1542.
-His travels were originally intended to reach the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. These turned out to be merely adobe pueblos, but he continued his journey eastward, going as far as modern day Kansas.
-Discovered the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River along his journey.
Hernando de Soto
(1496/1497?-1542) Conquistador who began a North American expedition in 1539 in search for gold. His journey moved westward from Flordia, and he was officially the first European to cross the Mississippi River, which he did in 1541.
-Reached Oklahoma and Texas; died in 1542 of fever and wounds. His men secretly disposed of his body for fear that the Indians, whom he cruelly mistreated, would abuse his corpse.
Francisco Pizarro
(1471/1476?-1541) Conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire of Peru in 1532. After two unsuccessful journeys southward from Panama and even a trip back to Spain, Pizarro arrived in Peru with a request to meet with the Incan leader Atahualpa.
-When they were refused, Pizarro and his army conquered the Incas and set up the city of Lima, current capital of Peru.
encomienda
-Labor system put to use by the Spanish and a technique that was not only put to use in areas such as the West Indies, but also used to subdue the civilizations of Mexico and Peru.
-Used in from the 16th century until its legal end in 1720, this system allowed the government to "give" Indians to certain colonists on the grounds that the colonists would try to Christianize the Indians.
-Fundamentally, slavery.
Bartolome de Las Casas
(1484-1566) Spanish Dominican priest who traveled to the new World as a missionary for the cause of Christianization.
-Witnessed the poor treatment of the natives Hispaniola's encomienda system and opposed it before King Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
-Described the encomienda as "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Hernan Cortes
(1485-1547) The proud conqueror of Aztec Mexico, he set sail on a journey for gold in 1519, heading for the Aztec capital at Tenochtitlán.
-With the help of the Indian interpreter Malinche, he entered the city unopposed as the Aztecs thought he was the god Quetzalcoatl.
-Eventually, tensions led to conflict, from which Cortés emerged successful. This led to the founding of Mexico City on the site of what was once Tenochtitlán, and also the creation of a new culture of Mestizos.
Moctezuma
-The Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán who ruled at the time of Cortés's conquest of Mexico. (1519-20)
-Welcomed the approaching Spaniards and soon believed Cortés to be the god Quetzalcoatl.
-The Spaniard overstayed their welcome with their endless lust for gold, however, and the Aztecs attacked on June 30, 1520 (noche triste). The Spaniards retaliated, though, and conquered the Aztecs.
-He was somehow killed; whether it was by the Spanish or by his own people is not certain.
Mestizos
-A race of people with mixed heritage, both American Indian and European.
-This race was created by intermarriages between Cortés's people and the natives in Mexico, and to this day Mexicans also celebrate Columbus Day as the "Dia de la Raza" (Day of the Race).
Giovanni Cobato (John Cabot)
(1450-1499) Italian navigator and explorer whose journey to North America was the first of anyone since the Norse Vikings in the 11th century.
-Sent by the English in 1497 and 1498 to explore North America's northeastern coast, he made two voyages there but hardly ventured inland at all.
-Died in England in 1499.
Giovanni da Verrazano
(1485-1528) Italian explorer who sailed to North America in the service of King Francis I of France.
-In 1524 he landed at Cape Fear at what is now North Carolina and journeyed northward to New York Bay and then Narragansett Bay.
-Made two more journeys, one to Brazil and one to Florida and the Caribbean. On his final journey, Carib natives killed and ate him.
Jacques Cartier
(1491-1557) French explorer who was given commission by the king of France to sail westward in search of a passage to Asia.
-Claimed Canada for France and traded in a friendly manner with the natives in his first two voyages to North America. At first he thought he had reached an Asian coast, but came to admit that this was not the case.
-Journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence river.
Don Juan de Onate
(1552-1626) Conquistador who led an expedition across the Sonora Desert, from Mexico to the Río Grande Valley.
-Arrived in 1598 and brutally abused the native Pueblos, fighting battles which he claimed were instigated by the natives and for the sole purpose of God's glory.
-He proclaimed the area New Mexico in 1609 and established its capital at Santa Fé the following year.
Battle of Acoma
(1599) The defining battle of the war between the Spanish expedition of Oñate and the native Pueblos of New Mexico.
-Following victory for Oñate's troops, the Spanish severed one foot off of each Indian survivor. This served as an example of the cruelty with which Oñate treated the natives. Following this, the Spaniards claimed New Mexico.
Pope's rebellion
(1680) A violent rebellion orchestrated by the Pueblo natives against the Catholic missionaries of New Mexico.
-Provoked by the missionaries' frustrating attempts to suppress the native religion, the Pueblos killed Spanish priests and other settlers. They also destroyed every Catholic church in the area, building a kiva (native religious chamber) where the one in Santa Fé was destroyed.
-This resulted in nearly 50 years of Indian control over New Mexico.
Robert de La Salle
(1643-1687) A French explorer who claimed the entire Mississippi River Basin for France.
-Explored the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes region.
-He was sent on an expedition down the Mississippi River; this French threat prompted the Spanish to establish settlements in the Texas area.
Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo
(1499-1543) Portuguese explorer who explored the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain.
-Explored the California coast in 1542; he was the first person to do so, as no real foreign threat to Spain existed.
-Failed to find San Francisco Bay, however, or really anything else of much interest.
-For the next two centuries, no significant European intrusion entered California.
Junipero Serra
(1713-1784) Franciscan friar who led Spanish missionaries to California in the first European journey there since Cabrillo's, over two hundred years beforehand.
-Set up a series of twenty-one missions, starting at San Diego and extending to Sonoma, north of San Francisco Bay.
-He and his friars taught thousands of native Californians Christianity, as well as horticulture and crafts.
-Beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 25, 1988.
"Black Legend"
-The false or otherwise greatly exaggerated idea that maintained that nothing good came out of the Spanish conquest of the New World.
-Claimed that the Spanish only slaughtered the native Indians, took their gold and left European diseases behind.
-This theory focuses on and exaggerates only the negatives of Spanish exploration.
-While there were negatives, and countless ones, the Spanish did create an enormous empire, whose people they taught their culture, their laws, their language, and Catholicism.
-Led to a negative portrayal of Spain's conquistadores and dampened their achievements.