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ACE Health Coach - Chapter 3
Behavior Change Models and Theories
Terms in this set (62)
biopsychosocial model of health
The integration of biological, psychological, and social factors in dealing with health related behaviors (holistic)
the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive - well-being, contentment, and satisfaction (past); hope and optimism (future) and flow and happiness (present)
behavior related to or affecting health and is synonymous with the term health-related behavior
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels/arteries, measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHG) with sphygmomanometer
(adj.) characterized by or calling for continued sitting; remaining in one place
Holistic notion of health that involves the whole person: body, mind, and relationship with community
Biomedical model of health
A model of health that focuses on biological factors as they relate to illness.
-high blood pressure
-most common chronic health problem
-Leading cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular premature death and disability
A component of the body, the primary role of which is to store energy for later use.
Contributes to hypertension
excess body fat
Excessive accumulation of body fat. Usually defined as more than 20% above ideal body weight, or over 25% body fat for men and over 32% for women. Body mass index of >30 kg or a waist girth of >40 inches for men and >35 for women.
Considering a person's behavior in the context of the larger environment.
Social ecological model
Considering a person's behavior in the context of the larger environment. These perspective help health, wellness, and exercise professionals understand supportive influences, as well as barriers to behavior change that may be part of the client's life.
Health coaching is rooted in....
the understanding how to empower people in the process of lifestyle behavior change.
The Values in Action Classification of Strengths
a questionnaire that assesses six clusters of 24 strengths
Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM)
theoretical model that describes health behavior as a process characterized by stages of readiness to change; emphasizes viewing intentional behavior change as a process that occurs over time.
Five stages of change in TTM
Stages of Change Model
The part of TTM that views intentional behavior change as a process over time, as change is seen to proceed through certain stages.
Readiness to change
Part of TTM, a reference on how likely someone is to make behavioral change based on their current state of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action or maintenance)>
Part of TTM - not thinking about change
Part of TTM - weighing the pros and cons of change
Part of TTM - getting ready to change
Part of TTM - practicing new behaviors
Part of TTM - incorporating the new behavior into one's lifestyle
In behavior change, the return to the original problem after may lapses have occurred
Stages of behavioral change
precontemplation - no awareness of the problem
contemplation - aware of the problem but not willing to
Most important and useful concepts of TTM
A person's readiness to change.
First objective for health coach
assess client's readiness to engage in behavior change
Health coaches are most effective when
They individualize their support based on how ready a client is to change
Rating a variable on a numerical scale (use a scale from 0 to 10 as an example)
refers to the idea that, as people move through the stages of change, the way they feel about the target behavior will change. The balance of positive and negative thoughts associated with the behavior may shift in ways that lead to a decision to change.
Processes of change
Interventions and strategies that lead to the profession from one stage t the next in the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavioral change. These changes are categorized as cognitive processes (which result in new ways of thinking that reinforce motivation to change) and behavioral processes (which support the behavior change).
Processes of change
Interventions and strategies that lead to the progression from one stage to the next in the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change.
3) self -reevluation
the degree to which we see ourselves as being capable of a given skill in a given situation
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
Behavior change theory that believes all health behaviors are goal driven through anticipation of outcomes
Factors that influence self efficacy
1) Mastery experiences - past success
2) Motivational models - see someone similar to themselves succeed
3) Persuasive messages - receiving messages
4) Stress arousal - help reduce stress by creating a relaxing, nonjudgemental, encouraging environment
Health Belief Model
People's ideas and underlying emotions about illnesses, prevention, and treatments may influence health behaviors and decisions about changing or not changing.
Health Belief Model four variables the influence a person's decision to change
Beliefs about health threats
1) Perceived susceptibility
Beliefs about the health behavior that can reduce the threat
Peoples perceptions of how likely they are to develop the illness.
One's opinion of how serious a condition and its consequences are
Social Cognitive Theory
People learn behaviors, they are influenced by (1) cognitive and personal factors (knowledge, outcome expectations, and attitudes) (2) behavioral factors (skills, practice, self-evaluation, and self efficacy) and (3) environmental factors (social norms, community influences, behavior reinforcement and observational learning).
explanations for events or actions, including other people's behavior
locus of control
The degree which people attribute outcomes to internal factors such as effort and ability, as opposed to external factors, such as luck or actions of others.
health locus of control
measures the degree to which people perceive their health to be under personal control, control by the health practitioner, or chance
type 1 diabetes mellitus
The form of diabetes that appears early in life and is characterized by insufficient production of insulin
the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past
Self perception Theory (SPT)
Theory that individuals attitudes, preferences, and emotional responses are shaped by observing their own behavior.
Self Determination Theory (SDT)
Based on the belief that people are naturally motivated to pursue activities and goal in which they are interested or from they believe they will benefit.
Three factors that influence motivation
1)autonomy - capacity of a rational person to make informed, un-coerced decisions
2)competence - having the necessary ability, knowledge or skill to do something successfully
3)relatedness - Sense of belonging and connectedness with others
strong predictor of successful behavior change
Types of motivation in SDT
1) Intrinsic motivation - inherently interested
2) Integrated regulation - when behavior/goals become integrated into a person's self concept.
3)Identified regulation - When people perform an activity because it helps them reach a personally meaningful goal
4) Introjected regulation - People engage in an activity because they think they should
5)External regulation - People engage in an activity solely from external pressure.
6)Motivation - No motivation
How does self determination theory (SDT) apply to health coaching
1)discover by listening the client's goals
2)Assist client in moving from introjected regulation to identified regulation
3)Let client guide the plan development
4) Structure learning experiences for client self efficacy
5)Use good communication to build rapport
What best describes the biopsychosocial model of health?
Health is a combination of biological, social and psychological factors
How can a health coach support a client who has decided to adopt a new sleep routine?
Collaborate with the client on realistic goals to get started.
This most accurately defines the concept of self-liberation in the process of change...
Deciding to change and experiencing a new beliefs in the ability to do so
What is an example of the most appropriate application of using motivational models to increase self-efficacy?
Introduce a client to a colleague who experienced similar lifestyle changes.
According to the health belief model, what must be present in order to make a decision to change?
The perception of an increased susceptibility to an illness.
What is an example of learned helplessness?
A client who does not believe he will lose weight because he has tried unsuccessfully for many years.
What is a key component of autonomous motivation?
The client is the expert on themselves
What is an example of identified regulation?
Bringing a lunch from home to avoid overeating event though you prefer to go out to lunch.
What is essential for a health coach to help a client progress through the stages of behavior change?
An accurate understanding of the client's readiness to change.
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