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Study guide Chapter 7 WMS

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Articles of Confederation
What was the first plan of government called?
Executive
The person who runs the government and sees that the laws are carried out.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
This law set up the guidelines for how a territory could become a state and outlawed slavery in these territories.
Constitution
A document stating the rules under which a new government will operate.
Economic Depression
A period when business activity slows, prices and wages drop and unemployment rises
What FOREIGN problems were caused by the Articles of Confederation?
Other countries thought the US was weak.
British troops wouldn't leave when they were supposed to
Spanish didn't let the US use the Mississippi River for shipping.
What turned out to be a major weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
The federal government had no power --couldn't enforce the laws it made
Why did the writers of the Articles of Confederation give so little power to the federal government?
Because of what had happened with England;
Didn't want to give a lot of power to a government far away.
What was the 3 step process for admitting new states?
1. When being settled, congress appointed a governor and judge
2. 5000 free adult males--then could elect a legislature
3. When population reached 60,000 it could ask to become a state.
Economic (business and trade) problems caused by the Articles of Confederation
Each state had its own trade policy, printed their own money, and taxed goods from other states.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Surveyors divided up public lands into townships; Each township was divided into 36 sections; One section in each township was set aside for schools.
What caused Shay's Rebellion?
-Poor farmers hit hard by economic depression
-State took their farms to pay back taxes
-Farmers demanded they stop taking their farms and asked the Governor to print more paper money
What was Shay's Rebellion?
Daniel Shays and 1000 farmers tried to take guns from a state warehouse. State called in the militia to stop the rebellion. Shays was arrested.
What was the important result of Shay's Rebellion?
People recognized they needed a stronger central government.
Judicial
Branch of the government that interprets the laws; the court system--especially the Supreme Court
New Jersey Plan
Called for a 1-house legislature; Equal representation for all states; representatives selected by legislators
Virginia Plan
Called for 3 branches of government; 1 person called President to serve as an executive; 2-house legislature with delegates based on the state's population
Legislative
Branch of the government that makes the laws; Congress
Executive
Branch of the government that enforces the laws and includes the President and the Cabinet
Compromise
An agreement in wich each side gives p a part of what it wants
The Great Compromise
A 2-house Congress: House of Representatives--based on population and elected by the people; Senate--each state has 2 legislators selected by the legislature.
3/5 Compromise
Southern states wanted to count slaves in their total population the North said no. Agreed to count each slave as 3/5 of a free person.
Gouvenneur Morris
Person who wrote the Preamble for the Constitution
Federalists
Name given to the people who supported the new Constitution
ratify
word meaning "to approve"
9
Number of states needed to ratify the Constitution
Bill of Rights
Set up in order to protect people from unfair use of government power
George Washington
First President of the US
John Adams
First Vice-President of the US
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
Writers of the "Federalist Papers"
1st
This amendment covers the rights of speech, religion and the press
2nd
Amendment that grants people the right to have guns.
Antifederalists
Name given to the people who were against the Constitution
Why did Antifederalists not like the new Constitution?
-Said it would weaken the states
-Didn't have a bill of rights
-Feared a president could turn into a king
amendment
term that means any changes made to the Constitution
Today, what makes up the US Congress?
House of Representatives and the Senate
Preamble
Name given to the introduction to the Constitution
Legislative
Branch of government that actually makes the laws
Philadelphia
Name of the city where the Constitutional Convention was held
Power of the government comes from the people
"We the people " of the Constitution shows that the power comes from the people, not the government.
Liberty bell
symbol of American freedom, and hangs in Independence Hall in Philadelphia.
Federal government
Controlled all the land west of the Appalachian Mountains after the Articles of Confederation was signed.