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170 terms

IT Infrastructure Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
False
True or False:
A multiplexer converts a digital signal to an analog signal for transmission over a voice-grade telephone line.
False
True or False:
The signal-to-noise ratio of a communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be transmitted.
False
True or False:
The data transfer rate of a magnetic or optical storage medium is the ratio of bits stored to unit of medium surface area.
False
True or False:
the speed at which data can be moved over a communication channel is called the channel's access time.
False
True or False:
Time division multiplexing is used in cable television networks to carry multiple messages on a single transmission medium.
True
True or False:
Digital still and motion video cameras employ a two-dimensional photosensor array located behind an optical lens.
True
True or False:
Multilevel coding uses more than two signal parameter levels to encode multiple bits within a single signal event.
False
True or False:
An amplifier extends the range of data transmission by retransmitting a signal.
True
True or False:
Broadband transmission divides the capacity of a transmission medium to implement multiple channels.
True
True or False:
Dynamic RAM requires frequent refresh cycles to maintain its data content.
True
True or False:
Digital audio tape (DAT) drives use helical scanning to achieve high storage density.
False
True or False:
Accurate transmission requires that signal-to-noise ratio be less than or equal to zero.
True
True or False:
In synchronous data transmission, a synchronous idle message signal is transmitted during periods when no data is being transmitted.
True
True or False:
A SCSI controller translates signals and is attached to two different buses.
True
True or False:
Frequency modulation encodes data by varying the time between wave peaks within an analog signal.
True
True or False:
An access to primary storage that is found within a cache is called a cache hit.
True
True or False:
Binary, trinary, and quadrary signals are all examples of digital signals.
False
True or False:
An electronic keyboard generates and escape code, which may be translated into ASCII character output by a keyboard controller.
True
True or False:
A compact disc read only memory (CD-ROM) is an optical storage medium that is written only during manufacture.
False
True or False:
As storage density increases, problems of data loss due to magnetic leakage and decay decrease.
True
True or False:
A laser printer requires a larger buffer than a dot matrix printer.
True
True or False:
Serial transmission sends bits one at a time using a single transmission line.
True
True or False:
The value of a binary signal parameter is compared to a threshold value to determine whether it represents a zero or a one.
True
True or False:
During a push operation, one or more register values are copied to the top of the stack.
False
True or False:
The CPU incurs a refresh cycle when it must access storage devices that are slower than its own cycle time.
False
True or False:
Parallel transmission cables usually occupy less space and are easier to route around computer system components than serial transmission cables.
False
True or False:
The access method of RAM is serial if bits are considered the unit of data access.
True
True or False:
Secondary storage is slower, cheaper, and less volatile than primary storage.
True
True or False:
A level one primary storage cache is generally implemented on the same chip as the CPU.
True
True or False:
With a lossy compression method, compressing then decompressing a file produces a result different from the original file.
True
True or False:
Attenuation is a term that describes loss of signal strength as it travels through a transmission medium.
False
True or False:
The print head of a liquid crystal printer forces liquid ink onto a page through a small nozzle.
True
True or False:
A complete cycle of a sine wave follows its full range from zero to positive peak, back to zero, to its negative peak, and then back to zero again.
False
True or False:
A phase change optical disk drive uses combination of optical and magnetic storage technologies.
True
True or False:
An individual display element of a video display surface is called a pixel.
True
True or False:
The control bus is used to transmit command, timing, and status signals between devices in a computer system.
False
True or False:
The system bus can be decomposed logically into three sets of bus lines: the address bus, the control bus, and the cache bus.
False
True or False:
The machine state is a register that always contains a pointer to the top of the stack.
True
True or False:
Packet switching is a type of time division multiplexing.
False
True or False:
A pixel is one seventy second of an inch.
True
True or False:
Type I error can only be decreased by increasing Type II error.
True
True or False:
In asynchronous transmission, blocks or characters arrive at unpredictable times.
False
True or False:
During interrupt processing, register values of a suspended process are stored in a buffer.
True
True or False:
Text pages may be converted to bit maps by an optical scanner. These bit maps are then input to an optical character recognition (OCR) program that generates ASCII or Unicode representation of the text.
False
True or False:
The frequency of a signal is a measure of its peak strength.
True
True or False:
Packet switching uses transmission capacity more efficiently than circuit switching.
True
True or False:
An amplifier increases the strength of a signal, including both the encoded message and any noise that may be present.
False
True or False:
Many standard recording formats for cartridge tapes have been defined by the IEEE.
False
True or False:
Doubling buffer size always halves the number of bus cycles used to transfer data to or from the buffer.
False
True or False:
Graphic images are generally stored as a MIDI map, where each pixel is represented by one or more numbers.
True
True or False:
Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) encodes the data by varying the magnitude of wave peaks within an analog signal.
False
True or False:
A pixel is a primitive component of human speech.
True
True or False:
A track is a series of sectors stored along one concentric circle on a disk platter.
True
True or False:
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a standardized method of encoding notes and instruments for communication with synthesizers and sound cards.
True
True or False:
Electromagnetic interference cannot interfere with signals sent through fiber optic cable.
True
True or False:
Crosstalk is noise added to the signal in the wire from EMI generated by adjacent wires.
False
True or False:
Video displays generate color using separate (but closely spaced) red, yellow, and blue pixels.
False
True or False:
Part of the function of a secondary storage device controller is to translate physical accesses into logical accesses.
False
True or False:
The data transfer rate of a disk storage device can be calculated as the product of its rotational speed and sector size.
False
True or False:
Simplex transmission implements two-way transmission with only one communication channel.
True
True or False:
Wireless transmission frequencies are regulated heavily, and regulations vary in different parts of the world.
True
True or False:
Cost per bit stored decreases as capacity of a storage device or medium increases.
False
True or False:
A cache controller is a hardware device that initiates a cache swap when it detects a cache hit.
False
True or False:
Coaxial cable has the lower bandwidth than twisted pair cable.
True
True or False:
A cache is a small area of fast memory that can be used to minimize wait states.
Stack Pointer
The ______ is automatically incremented or decremented each time the stack is pushed or popped.

A. Device Controller
B. Stack Pointer
C. Cache
D. Buffer
Parallel
The access method of RAM is ______ if bits are considered the unit of data access.

A. Random
B. Parallel
C. Serial
D. Direct
Stack Pointer
The ______ is a register that always contains the address of the topmost stack element.

A. Interrupt Register
B. Stack Pointer
C. Machine State
D. Instruction Register
4 nanoseconds
If the bus clock rate is 250 MHz, what is the duration of each bus cycle?

A. 2 nanoseconds
B. 3 nanoseconds
C. 4 nanoseconds
D. 5 nanoseconds
Serial
What transmission method sends bits one at a time using a single transmission line?

A. Serial
B. Parallel
C. RF
D. Infrared
Push
During a(n) _____ operation, one or more register values are copied to the top of the stack.

A. Pop
B. Push
C. Swap
D. Shift
Interrupt
A(n) ____ is a signal to the CPU or operating system that some device or program requires processing services.

A. Pop
B. Interrupt
C. Push
D. Cache swap
Type I error
What term describes the probability that an error detection method will not detect a transmission error?

A. Type I error
B. Type II error
C. Compensating error
D. Skew
SIMMs/DIMMs
Many personal computers use memory packaged on small standardized circuit boards called _____.

A. DIPs
B. SIMMs/DIMMs
C. DRAMs
D. SRAMs
Hertz
The number of refresh cycles per second is normally stated in ______.

A. Hertz
B. Bytes
C. Pixels
D. DPI
Cache (but not buffer) content is intelligently managed
The difference between a cache and a buffer is ______.

A. Data is removed from a cache as it is read.
B. Buffers are only used for storage device accesses.
C. Cache (but not buffer) content is intelligently managed.
D. Buffers are usually much larger than caches
Amplitude
What modulation type encodes data by varying the magnitude of wave peaks within a carrier wave?

A. Phase
B. Packet
C. Frequency
D. Amplitude
Asynchronous
What transmission type uses start bits?

A. Synchronous
B. Broadband
C. Asynchronous
D. Baseband
Cycle
A complete _____ of a sine wave follows its full range from zero to positive peak, back to zero, to its negative peak, and then back to zero again.

A. Amplitude
B. Phase
C. Frequency
D. Cycle
Flash RAM
Operating software is stored in _____ or downloaded from a server when the thin client is powered up.

A. Cache
B. Buffers
C. Flash RAM
D. ROM
Cache
A(n) _____ is a small area of fast memory that can be used to minimize wait states when reading from a primary or secondary storage device.

A. Stack
B. I/O Port
C. Buffer
D. Cache
Twisted Pair
Which cable type has the lowest bandwidth?

A. Coaxial
B. Fiber Optic
C. Synchronous
D. Twisted Pair
Size
Which of the following is not one of the characteristics that distinguishes storage devices?

A. Speed
B. Size
C. Volatility
D. Portability
Dynamic
What type of RAM requires frequent refresh cycles to maintain its data content?

A. Dynamic
B. Static
C. Synchronous
D. Enhanced
AVC
Which of the following is not included in sound cards?

A. ADC
B. DAC
C. Low power amplifier
D. AVC
Opening a non-existent file
Which of the following is a potential source of an interrupt?

A. Dropped modem connection
B. Opening a non-existent file
C. Successful computation operation
D. Opening a file that exists
Firmware
Software programs permanently stored in a read only memory (ROM) are called ______.

A. Software
B. Firmware
C. Hardware
D. Vaporware
CD-ROM
An optical storage medium that is written only during manufacture is called a(n) _____.

A. Phase change disk
B. Magneto optical disk
C. CD-ROM
D. WORM disk
JPEG
The _____ format is a commonly used method of compressed storage for graphic images.

A. JPEG
B. MPEG
C. CMYK
D. MIDI
Serial
Tape drives are ______ access devices.

A. Direct
B. Serial
C. Random
D. Average
Head-to-head switching time
____ is the least significant component of access time.

A. Head-to-head switching time
B. Data transfer rate
C. Absolute addressing
D. Magnetic decay
On the stack
During interrupt processing, register values of a suspended process are stored _______.

A. On the stack
B. In a cache
C. In a buffer
D. In a linear address space
Bus arbitration unit
A(n) ____ is a hardware device that intervenes when two potential bus masters want control of the bus at the same time.

A. System bus
B. Cache controller
C. Bus arbitration unit
D. Peripheral processing unit
Calls system software programs and processes
Which of the following functions is not performed by device controllers?

A. Implement the bus interface and access protocols.
B. Translate logical accesses into physical accesses.
C. Calls system software programs and processes.
D. Permit several devices to share access to a bus connection.
SCSI-720
Which of the following is not one of the SCSI standards?

A. SCSI-1
B. Ultra SCSI
C. Ultra3 SCSI
D. SCSI-720
Optical media are subject to magnetic decay and leakage
Which of the following statements about optical storage media is not true?

A. Most optical storage media can retain data for decades.
B. Optical media are subject to magnetic decay and leakage.
C. Typical optical recording densities are at least 10 time greater than for magnetic storage devices.
D. Optical storage devices store bit values as variations in light reflection.
DVD-RAM discs can be read in current DVD-ROM and home DVD players.
Which of the following statements about DVDs is not true?

A. DVD-RAM capacity is approximately 4.7 GB for single-sided discs.
B. DVD-RAM capacity is approximately 8.5 GB for double-sided discs.
C. DVD-R capacity is 4.7 MB.
D. DVD-RAM discs can be read in current DVD-ROM and home DVD players.
Rotational delay
Which of the following is not a problem associated with magnetic tape storage?

A. Magnetic leakage
B. Magnetic decay
C. Friction
D. Rotational delay
Drive array
A(n) ____ supports parallell access by storing fragments of a single data item on different storage devices.

A. Phase change optical disk
B. Magneto-optical disk drive
C. Drive array
D. Device controller
System bus
The ______ is the communication channel that connects all computer system components.

A. System bus
B. Cache controller
C. Bus arbitration unit
D. Peripheral processing unit
Message
A(n) _______ is a unit of data or information transmitted from a sender to one or more recipients.

A. Message
B. Cycle
C. Digital signal
D. Baseband
Data transfer rate
What measurement unit describes the speed and capacity of a communication channel?

A. Throughput
B. Access Time
C. Response Time
D. Data transfer rate
Device controller
Where does the translation from logical access to physical accesses normally take place?

A. Bus
B. Device controller
C. I/O or storage device
D. Bus arbitration unit
Square
_______ waves are the preferred method of digital data transmission over relatively short distances, for example, on a computer system bus.

A. Sine
B. Square
C. Digital
D. Cosine
Points
The units of measurement for font size are called _____.

A. Pixels
B. Points
C. Bits
D. All of the above
Absolute
Under _______ addressing, program memory references correspond to physical memory locations.

A. Direct
B. Serial
C. Random
D. Absolute
Blue
Which of the following is not considered a subtractive color?

A. Cyan
B. Blue
C. Yellow
D. Magenta
Addressable
The number of bits used to represent a memory address determine the amount of a CPU's _______ memory.

A. Addressable
B. Physical
C. Segmented
D. Flat
Multilevel coding
_____ is a technique for embedding multiple bit values within a single wave characteristic, such as a frequency or amplitude.

A. Circuit switching
B. Asynchronous transmission
C. Multilevel coding
D. Frequency modulation
Cache hit
When a read operating accesses data already contained within the cache, the access is called a(n) _____.

A. Cache hit
B. Cache miss
C. Cache swap
D. Cache bypass
Crosstalk
What term corresponds to the following definition: noise added to the signal in the wire from EMI generated by adjacent wires?

A. Skew
B. Crosstalk
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
Fiber optic
What type of transmission cable is immune to electromagnetic interference?

A. Twisted pair
B. Category 5
C. Coaxial
D. Fiber optic
Communication protocol
A(n) ______ is a set of rule and conventions for communication.

A. Message
B. Communication Protocol
C. Phase
D. Frequency
Frequency
What modulation type represents bit values by varying carrier wave frequency while holding amplitude constant?

A. Amplitude
B. Phase shift
C. Frequency
D. Shift keying
Linear address space
The operating system normally views any storage device as a(n) _____, thus ignoring the device's physical storage organization.

A. Device controller
B. Peripheral processing unit
C. Linear address space
D. Multiple master bus
Amplifier
A(n) ______ can extend the range of an electrical signal by boosting signal power to overcome attenuation.

A. Repeater
B. Return wire
C. Amplifier
D. Signal wire
Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow
The printing industry generally uses inks based on the subtractive colors, which are _______.

A. Red, Green and Magenta
B. Red, Yellow and Cyan
C. Cyan, Magenta and Yellow
D. Cyan, Magenta and Blue
Attenuation
Fiber optic cable segments can be longer than copper cable segments because optical signals experiences less ______.

A. Attenuation
B. Compensating errors
C. Multipath distortion
D. S/N ratio
I/O ports
______ enable the CPU and bus to interact with a keyboard in exactly the same way they interact with a disk drive or video display.

A. Caches
B. I/O ports
C. Buffers
D. DMA controllers
Cache miss
A cache controller is a hardware device that initiates a cache swap when it detects a(n) _____.

A. Cache miss
B. Cache hit
C. Interrupt
D. Stack overflow
Plasma
A(n) ____ display is similar in construction to other flat panel displays except that it employs gaseous elements for light generation.

A. Cathode ray
B. Plasma
C. Liquid crystal
D. Video display terminal
MPEG
The ______ format is a commonly used method of compressed storage for motion video.

A. JPEG
B. MPEG
C. CMYK
D. MIDI
Device controller
Which of the following provides the interface between the storage device and the system bus?

A. RAM
B. ROM
C. Read/Write mechanism
D. Device controller
2:1
If a compression method typically reduces a 100 MByte file to 50 MBytes, then the compression ratio is ______.

A. 150:1
B. 1:150
C. 2:1
D. 1:2
Data transfer rates differ
A buffer is not required when _________.

A. Input and output data unit sizes are not equal
B. Input data must wait until the device controller can gain access to the bus
C. Output data must wait until the device controller can gain access to the bus
D. Data transfer rates differ
Red, Green and Blue
The primary colors for video display are ____.

A. Red, Green and Blue
B. Red, Yellow and Blue
C. Red, Yellow and Green
D. Red, Yellow and Cyan
Analog
What type of signal can carry one of an infinite number of messages during one unit of time?

A. Analog
B. Binary
C. Digital
D. Discrete
1.44
Storing an 800x600 24-bit color image requires how many MB of storage?

A. 1.44
B. 14
C. 14.4
D. 144
Half-duplex
What transmission type uses a line turnaround character?

A. Simplex
B. Half-duplex
C. Full-duplex
D. Synchronous
Milliseconds
Access time is typically state in ______ for secondary storage devices and nanoseconds for primary storage devices.

A. Microseconds
B. Nanoseconds
C. Milliseconds
D. Picoseconds
Frequency
What characteristic of an analog signal is measured in Hertz, or cycles per second?

A. Amplitude
B. Frequency
C. Phase
D. Skew
Raw data transfer rate
A(n) _____ is the maximum number of bits or bytes per second that the channel can carry.

A. Effective data transfer rate
B. Raw data transfer rate
C. Binary signal
D. Even parity
Access times for secondary storage devices are typically expressed in nanoseconds.
Which of the following statement about secondary storage is not correct?

A. By itself, access time is an incomplete measure of data access speed
B. The data transfer unit for primary storage devices in usually a word
C. Block size is normally stated in bytes
D. Access times for secondary storage devices are typically expressed in nanoseconds
Closest to the platter edge
To increase storage capacity, most magnetic disk drive manufacturers divide the platter surface into zones and increase the number of sectors per track in the zone _______.

A. Closest to the platter center
B. Closest to the platter edge
C. Equally distant between the center and edge of the platter
D. Closest to the sector edge
Protocol
The bus ____ governs the format, content, and timing of data, memory addresses, and control messages sent across the bus.

A. Master
B. Slave
C. Arbitration unit
D. Protocol
Bitmap
In an image description language, image components that are too complex to represent using vectors and curves are represented using an embedded _____.

A. Display list
B. Bitmap
C. Phoneme list
D. MIDI file
Analog
Which of the following signal types is most susceptible to transmission error?

A. Analog
B. Binary
C. Digital
D. Discrete
Access time for a random access storage device must be a constant
Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. Data is written to a linear storage medium in a specific order and can be read back only in that same order.
B. All primary storage devices and disk storage devices are random access devices
C. Access time for a random access storage device must be a constant
D. Parallel access can also be achieved by subdividing data items and storing the component pieces on multiple storage devices.
MPEG-3
Which of the following is not one of the standards of the Motion Picture Experts Group?

A. MPEG-1
B. MPEG-2
C. MPEG-3
D. MPEG-4
Both A and B
To which bus(es) is a SCSI controller attached?

A. SCSI bus
B. System bus
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
Baseband
What transmission type uses all of a transmission medium's capacity to implement a single channel?

A. Broadband
B. Baseband
C. Asynchronous
D. Synchronous
Cathode ray tube
The display device used in older computer monitors (and inexpensive televisions) is a(n) ____.

A. Plasma display
B. Cathode ray tube
C. Liquid crystal display
D. Active matrix
All of the above
Which of the following devices does the CPU treat as a linear address space?

A. Tape drive
B. Disk drive
C. Video display
D. All of the above
Reduced storage space
The main advantage(s) of MIDI as compared to digital representations of sound is/are __.

A. Reduced storage space
B. More accurate sound reproduction
C. identical sound quality from any sound card
D. Control over the exact nature of the generated sound.
Repeater
What device extends the range of data transmission by retransmitting a signal?

A. Repeater
B. Amplifier
C. Line conditioner
D. Demultiplexer
Bus
Which of the following is a set of parallel communication lines that connect two or more devices?

A. Bus
B. Cache
C. Buffer
D. I/O port
Broadband
What transmission type divides the capacity of a transmission medium to implement multiple channels?

A. Asynchronous
B. Synchronous
C. Broadband
D. Baseband
Scan code
A keyboard controller generates output called a(n) ____ when one or more keys are pressed.

A. Control code
B. Escape code
C. Control character
D. Scan code
Bitmap
Image storage requirements can be reduced with _____ compression techniques.

A. Bitmap
B. Additive file
C. MIDI file
D. Subtractive file
Magnetic leakage
Data that are stored on magnetic media for long periods of time may be lost due to ____.

A. Magnetic leakage
B. Coercivity
C. Helical scanning
D. Indirect addressing
Processor
A printer that accepts commands in an image description language must have an embedded ______.

A. Processor
B. Symbol table
C. Vectors
D. All of the above
Parity checking
What form of error checking uses a single check bit per transmitted character or byte?

A. Block checking
B. Cyclical redundancy checking
C. Parity checking
D. None of the above
Track-to-Track seek time
The time required to move from one track to another is called _____.

A. Head-to-head switching time
B. Track-to-track switching time
C. Track-to-track seek time
D. Head-to-head seek time
All of the above
Which of the following are weaknesses of wireless transmission compared to wired transmission?

A. Greater susceptibility to EMI
B. Higher cost
C. Potential security breaches
D. All of the above
Slower
Secondary storage is _____ than primary storage.

A. Slower
B. More expensive
C. More volatile
D. Faster
CD-W
Which of the following is not one of the storage formats that is available for optical storage devices?

A. CD-ROM
B. DVD-ROM
C. CD-W
D. DVD-RAM
Discrete
Trinary and quadrary signals are all examples of what type of signal?

A. PCM
B. On-off keying
C. Discrete
D. Analog
Frequency division multiplexing
What method is used in cable television networks to carry multiple messages on a single transmission medium?

A. Phase modulation
B. Time division multiplexing
C. Frequency Modulation
D. Frequency division multiplexing
Digital signal processor
A(n) ___ is a microprocessor specialized to the task of processing continuous streams of audio or graphical data.

A. Analog to digital converter (ADC)
B. Digital signal processor
C. Multimedia controller
D. Video controller
Inkjet
The print head of a(n) ____ printer forces liquid ink onto a page through a small nozzle.

A. Dot matrix
B. Laser
C. Liquid crystal
D. Inkjet
During a read operation, a cache acts as a buffer.
Which of the following statements about caches is not correct?

A. During a read operation, a cache acts as a buffer.
B. Data first is stored in the cache and then transferred to the storage device
C. Most of the performance benefits of a cache occur during read operations
D. Write caching can result in more significant performance improvement when one write access must be confirmed before another can begin.
Hardware-based compression is not included in modern standards for analog modems
Which of the following statements about compression is not correct?

A. Data sent to storage devices is compressed before it is written.
B. Data read from storage devices is decompressed before it is sent to the requester.
C. Data is compressed as it enters the channel and then decompressed as it leaves the channel.
D. Hardware-based compression is not included in modern standards for analog modems
Interrupt table
A(n) _____ stores the memory address of the first instruction of each interrupt handler.

A. Supervisor
B. Interrupt index
C. Interrupt table
D. Index table
EMI
____ can be produced by a variety of sources, including electric motors, radio equipment, and nearly power transmission or communication lines.

A. EMI
B. Attenuation
C. Distortion
D. Line turnaround
POP
What instruction is usually executed immediately after a PUSH instruction?

A. ADD
B. XOR
C. POP
D. JUMP
Dithering
____ creates a pattern of primary colored pixels that fools the eye into thinking a composite color is being displayed.

A. Dithering
B. Sampling
C. Chromatic scanning
D. Chromatic resolution
Fiber optic
Which cable type has the highest bandwidth?

A. Fiber optic
B. Synchronous
C. Twisted pair
D. Coaxial
Unit of data transfer
The data transfer rate of a primary storage device is computer by dividing 1 by the access time and multiplying the result by the _____.

A. Rotational Delay
B. Head-to-head switching time
C. Unit of data transfer
D. Track-to-track seek time
Wait states
The CPU incurs one or more ____ when it is idle pending the completion of an I/O operation by another device within the computer system.

A. Wait states
B. Cache misses
C. Buffer overflows
D. Stack overflows
Thin film transistor
_____ technology enables the reliable manufacture of relatively large displays.

A. Thin film transistor
B. LCD
C. Half toning
D. Photosensor