56 terms

Job Analysis


Terms in this set (...)

What is a Job-Analysis?
The systematic process of discovery of the nature of a job by dividing it into smaller units, where the process results in one or more written products.
Uses of a Job Analysis
Job Description
Job Classification
Job Evaluation
Job Design
HR Requirements and Specifications
Performance Appraisal
Worker Mobility
Workforce Planning
Legal Requirements
Job Description
Important for communicating the nature of the job to people who aren't familiar with it.
Job Classification
Placing jobs into clusters or families, which is important for setting pay ratings and selecting employees
Job Evaluation
Establishing the worth of a job to an employer
Job Design
Can be done for variety of reasons such as increasing satisfaction, efficacy, motivation, safety, quality, etc.
Performance Appraisal
Evaluating job performance, which can only be done once you understand the job. This can influence pay raises, promotions, etc.
Task Statement Components
1. An implied, plural subject
2. An Action Verb
3. The object of the verb (e.g., data, people, things)
4. The purpose of the activity ("to" or "in order to")
Advise your students on their dissertation in order to teach them how to do research.
Analysis of Task Importance
Two Components:
- Task Difficulty
- Criticality/Consequence of Error
Methods of Data Collection
Advantages of Direct Observation
Causes minimal disruptions of work
Can be used in conjunction with work diaries and/or interviews
Avoids selective recall
May be good for jobs that require a great deal of manual, standardized, short-cycle activities
Disadvantages of Direct Observation
Workers may change the job when being observed
Costly and Time Consuming (e.g., because people do certain things only once a month)
A lot of work is not observable (e.g., cognitions)
May not be good for jobs requiring a lot of mental processing
This method assumes that the job is relatively static/stable
Advantages of Interviews
Can provide a broad view of the job in a short period of time
Interviewee can report behaviors that might be missed through observation and those that occur over a long period of time
Disadvantages of Interviews
May describe the ideal job rather than the typical job
-It is really important to get a SME perspective from both incumbents and supervisors
Sometimes difficult for experienced workers to articulate job tasks that have become automatic
This method depends on the skill of the interviewer
Interviewees may distort their responses
Make sure you get a description of your SMEs
- This could be a legal issue
Pay Attention to reading level
Advantages of Inventories
- Efficient - Can collect a lot of information in a short period of time from many SMEs
Amenable to psychometric analysis
Disadvantages of Inventories
Garbage In - Garbage Out
Rater Unreliability
May get conflicting data from incumbents vs. supervisors
Advantages of Questionnaires
Tend to be cheaper and quicker than other methods
Can reach more people with this method
Can perform statistical analysis with the data
Disadvantages of Questionnaires
Questionnaires are time consuming and expensive to develop
Ambiguities can't be cleared up
Potentially unreliable and inaccurate responses
Questionnaires do not build rapport or motivation
Gael's "Eyeball" Method
Print each task on a card
Sort the tasks into piles based on a broad area of work operation
Tasks are sorted into one and only one pile
Balance the tasks
-Create more piles if too many tasks are in one pile
-Combine related piles if too few tasks are there
-Most jobs have 8-10 functions; 75-100 tasks
Name and define the job function
-Verbs expressed in the form of the participle ("ing") followed by an object
Ask SMEs to review
Factor Analysis of Important Ratings
Basic KSAO Analysis for Selection Purposes
Is the KSAO Necessary for newly hired employees? (Yes/No)
Is the KSAO practical to expect in the labor market? (Yes/No)
To what extent is trouble likely if this KSAO is ignored in selection? (1-5)
To what extent do different levels of the KSAO distinguish the superior from the average worker? (1-5)
KSAO Criteria
KSAO is necessary and practical to expect
Trouble likely must be 1.5 or greater
If DSfAW is less than 1.5 then develop a selection measure that ranks applicants from best to worst
If DSfAW is greater than 1.5, develop a pass-fail measure
Establishing Minimum Qualifications
Perform at Entry (Should a newly hired employee be able to perform this task immediately or after a brief orientation/training period?) (Yes/No)
Barely Acceptable (Must even barely acceptable employees be able to perform this task correctly with normal supervision?) (Yes/No)
Importance of Correct Performance (How important is it for this task to be done correctly?) (1-5)
Difficulty (How difficult is it to do this task correctly compared to all other tasks in the job?) (1-5)
MQ Criteria
Performance at Entry - Yes
Barely Acceptable - Yes
Importance of Correct Performance - 3
Difficulty - 2
Work Oriented Methods
Time and Motion Study
Functional Job Analysis
Task Inventories
Critical Incident Techniques
Time and Motion Study
Primary Goal - Improve Effectiveness or Efficiency of Job Performance
Most often used in manufacturing and construction industries
Directed toward discovering the time taken to complete a given task
Directed toward discovering the sequence of steps (often body motions) used in competing a task.
- Based on the assumption that there is one best method/way of performing a task
Work sampling; observe job incumbents and record frequency of different behaviors
-Frequencies are converted to percentages to estimate the relative amount of time a worker spends on each category
Functional Job Analysis
Focuses on what people do on a job rather than what gets done as a result
Preferred methods are observations and interviews
FJA was used to develop the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Basic Steps in a FJA
Task Analysis
Measure Worker Functions
Measure Worker Instructions
Measure Work Qualifications
Identify Employee Specifications
Task Analysis (FJA)
Gather existing information such as books, technical information, flowcharts, organizational charts, job descriptions, pamphlets, etc.
Conduct observations/interviews with employees:
- Watch the workers do work
- Interview the work and the supervisor
- Watch the work and simultaneously interview them
Writing Task Statements
Measure Worker Functions (FJA)
Data - Dealing with information, ideas, statistics, etc.
People - Interactions with people/animals
Things - Using objects, machinery
Task Level - The relative complexity of a task compared to other tasks
Task Orientation - The relevant information of a worker with data, people, and things as a task is performed.
Measure Worker Qualifications (FJA)
Measures degree of prescription and discretion in task performance
Measure Worker Qualifications (FJA)
Reasoning Development - Problem-Solving and decision-making demands of a task
Mathematical Development - Mathematical Operations (from counting to high math) required by a task
Language Development - Demands of a task to deal with oral and written materials that cover simple as well as complex sources of information.
Identifying Employee Specification (FJA)
Educational development
Specific Vocational Preparation
Physical Demands
Fine's FJA
Method of data collection is to gather a panel of SMEs to interview because job incumbents know the job better than supervisors.
This version contains elements lacking in the DOL method:
- Includes level of orientation (% of task occupied by a function)
- Uses ratings of complexity and orientation at the task and job levels
However, the DOL method includes temperament and environmental conditions, where as this method does not
Advantages of FJA
Methods and standardized language helps to ensure a systematic approach to job analysis
Rating scales provide reliable task analysis data
Can be used to compensate for limitations of O*Net
Good for Job Classification, Job Evaluation, and Job Design
Disadvantages of FJA
It is labor intensive and time-consuming
Can require costly specialized training to apply effectively
Task Inventories
Involves defining a list of tasks or activities carried out on the job
Job analyst design the survey, administer it to a sample of employees, and analyze the results
Task Inventories are typically questionnaires given to job experts
Tasks are more narrowly defined than in FJA
Response Options to Task Inventory Questionnaires
How important is a task to a job?
How much time is spent on each task?
How frequently do you perform each task?
How difficult is it to perform each task?
What are the consequences of performing a task incorrectly?
Critical Incident Technique
Job Analysts collects recollections from SMEs of things that have been done that have resulted in noteworthy consequences
Three Main Pieces of Information
- A statement of what led up to the behavior or the problem/opportunity confronting the work
- The employee behavior itself
- The consequence of the behavior
Tips for CI Technique
Avoid the term critical incidences and use behavioral examples instead
Start with Good Examples
Have the SMEs think about specific people and tell stories
Make sure the stories are job related
Use dimensions or tasks as prompts to get them started
Find out the extent the individual in the story was responsible for the outcome
Advantages of CI
Creates a large amount of specific, job related behavioral (not trait-based) information
Identifies critical incidents that are important aspects of the job.
Good for developing performance appraisals, developing behavioral interviews, situational interviews, SJTs, and training
Disadvantages of CI
Incidents may not represent full scope of the job
You only get the best and the worst, so CIT might be great for selection, a bit better for training, better for evaluation
Analysts' judgments affect the stability of dimensions
Developmental process is labor intensive
Results are situation specific
Worker Oriented Methods
Job Element Method
Position Analysis Questionnaire
Fleishman Job Analysis Survey
Cognitive Task Analysis
Job Element Method
Element - Combination of behaviors and associated evidences
Cognitive Elements - such as recognizing tools, reading blueprints
Psychomotor - Operating a drill, color vision, piloting a jet
Work Habits - Willingness to stay late, attention to detail
Work Characteristics to Identify (JEM)
Identify Barely Acceptable Workers (B)
Distinguish Superior from average workers (S)
Identify Trouble likely if not considered (T)
Whether it is practical to expect in the job applicant pool (P)
Total Value (JEM)
Total Value = (S-B-P) + (SP+T)
- This value basically says: Let's select workers based on elements that will prove superior and reject workers that cause problems, but let's not select elements that are too common or too uncommon
Training Value
Training Value = S+T+SP'-B
- This says we should train skills that create superior workers that aren't readily available in the labor pool
Advantages of JEM
Offers a unique alternative for identifying important employee specifications and constructing measures for them
Main contribution is the question about barely acceptable etc.
Disadvantages of JEM
Is unwieldy and unstructured in the soliciting of preliminary job elements from SMEs
Lack job task specification to show how elements are job related.
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Designed around the stimulus-organism-response behavioral formula
Focuses on general behaviors
Off-the-shelf Job Analysis Technique
Six Major Division (PAQ)
Information Input - Visual sources of job information
Mental Processes - Decision-making
Work Output - Uses of devices
Relationships with other persons - Oral Communication
Job Context - Physical Hazards
Other Job Characteristics - Licensing
Advantages of PAQ
Very good for selection because it focuses on KSAOs
Good for Job Evaluation studies because PAQ has data on many comparison jobs in the economy
Standardized means for collecting quantitative data across a wide range of jobs
Reliable and valid
Collect a lot of them all at once
Disadvantages of PAW
Requires a college-level reading level
The PAW scores basic behaviors rather than specific tasks of a job (One study find high similarity between Police Officers and Homemakers)
It might not be enough of a thorough job analysis for a lot of purposes, it doesn't give you task information
You can't build job descriptions
SMEs don't like them
Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS)
Behaviorally-Anchored rating scales for 52 abilities
Four Categories of abilities
- Cognitive
- Psychomotor
- Physical
- Sensory/Perceptual
Off-the-shelf approach
Advantages of F-JAS
Straightforward and easy to adopt
Useful in criterion-related studies
-You are focsing on the KSAs but you aren't looking at specific task content because it doesn't provide that tasks cotent
Disadvantages of F-JAS
Not appropriate for content validation