### What is Logarithm?

AKA Log. The logarithm of a number is the number of times that the number 10 is multiplied by itself to create the original number

*Ex: Log of 100 is 2 (10 x 10)

*Ex: Log of 1000 is 3 (10 x 10 x 10)

*As the logarithm increases by 1, the actual number increases 10 fold

### What is the difference between a magnitude 5 and a magnitude 7 earthquake, in both real terms and logarithmic terms?

2 in real terms and 100 in logarithmic terms.

### What is a decibel?

The method of quantifying or measuring the strength of electrical signal and the brightness of echoes.

### What are the two types of intensities related to decibel?

Initial Intensity - Intensity at the starting level

New Intensity - Intensity during measurement

### What is the ratio for Decibel?

(New) Actual Intensity Level / (Initial) Starting Intensity Level

*Ratio is equivalent to 3 dB

### What is a positive decibel?

A. It is a measurement of increasing strength

B. When a wave's intensity doubles, the relative change is +3 dB

C. When the intensity increases 10-fold, the relative change is +10 dB

### What is a negative decibel?

A. The measurement of decreasing strength

B. When a wave's intensity is reduced by 1/2 its original value, the relative change is -3 dB

C. When the intensity is reduced to 1/10 its original value, the relative change is -10 dB

### Attenuation is the reduction of what three factors as sound travels?

1. Amplitude

2. Power

3. Intensity

### What two factors determine attenuation?

1. Path Length - Depth to travel or imaging depth

2. Frequency of Sound

### Attenuation is directly proportional to what two factors?

1. Depth the Sound Travels

2. Frequency of Sound Wave

### What three factors contribute to attenuation?

1. Reflection

2. Scattering

3. Absorption

*Attenuation is the process whereby sound energy is extracted from a wave by reflection, scattering and absorption

### What is reflection?

The redirection of some of the sound energy back to where the source of the sound came from

### What is specular reflection? (B-Mode)

A reflection that occurs on a (straight) smooth boundary in a single direction in an organized manner and back to the transducer

### What is a disadvantage to specular reflection?

The reflections do not go back to the transducer if the wave doesn't hit at 90 degree angle

### What are four descriptors of specular reflections?

1. Organized

2. Regular

3. Predictable

4. Occurs from a smooth boundary

### What are four descriptions of non-specular reflections?

1. Disorganized

2. Chaotic

3. Random

4. Occurs from a rough boundary

### What is diffuse Reflection aka Backscatter?

A reflection that occurs on an irregular boundary in different directions

### What is an advantage of Diffuse Reflection?

Reflections may return to the transducer even if the waves are off-axis

### When does scattering occur?

When the boundary (interface) is small or is equal or smaller than the wavelength

### What is Rayleigh Scattering (Organized Scattering)?

It occurs when the structure's size is much smaller than the wavelength and the sounds are redirected equally in all directions in an organized manner

Ex: Rayleigh scattering from red blood cells

*Rayleigh scattering is directly related to frequency raised to the 4th power

### What is the main reason why high frequency waves attenuate more than lower frequency sound waves?

Absorption

### In diagnostic imaging, what type of frequency is used to provide images from the depth of clinical interest?

The highest frequencies

### What is the attenuation coefficient?

The number of decibels of attenuation that occurs for every centimeter that a wave travels.

### When is attenuation higher in muscle?

When travelling across the muscle fibers, versus along the length of the fiber.

### What is the relationship between frequency and attenuation?

As frequency increases, scattering and absorption increases

### What is Half-Value Layer Thickness?

The depth of distance that a sound travels that reduces the intensity of sound to one-half of its original value

AKA - Penetration depth, depth of penetration and half-boundary layer

### What is the typical value range of impedance?

1,250,000 Z to 1,750,000 Z [Range of Impedance in Soft Tissues]

### What is the relationship between reflection and impedance?

They are directly related. As impedance increases, reflection increases.

### What is Incidence?

The striking of a sound wave at an interface as it propagates through soft tissues

### What are the three types of angles?

Acute - Less than 90 degrees

Right - Exactly 90 degrees

Obtuse - Greater than 90 degrees

### What is Normal Incidence?

A type of incidence when the incident sound beam strikes the boundary at exactly 90 degrees

AKA - Perpendicular, orthogonal, right angle and 90 degrees

### What is Oblique Incidence

A type of incidence when the incident sound beam strikes the boundary at any angle other than 90 degrees

AKA - Non-perpendicular

### What is Incident Intensity?

It's the intensity of the sound wave before it strikes a boundary

AKA - Starting intensity

Incident Intensity = Reflected Intensity + Transmitted Intensity

### What is Reflected Intensity?

The intensity of the portion of a sound beam that returns back after striking a boundary

### What is Transmitted Intensity?

The intensity of the portion of the incident beam that continues forward in the same direction that it is traveling after striking a boundary

### What is the Intensity Reflection Coefficient?

The percentage of the intensity that returns back when the sound beam travels from one medium to another

**1% or less in clinical imaging of soft tissues **Abbreviated as IRC

### What is the Intensity Transmission Coefficient?

The percentage of the intensity that travels forward in the same direction that it is traveling after striking an interface

*99% or more in clinical imaging of soft tissues

*Abbreviated ITC

### When does reflection occur in a normal incidence?

Reflection occurs when the impedance of the media on either side of the interface are different

### Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - The greater the impedance difference between media...

The greater the reflection at the boundary

### Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - The smaller the impedance difference between media...

The smaller the amount of reflection

### Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - If the impedance between media on either side of the interface are the same

There is no reflection

### What is an Oblique Incidence?

An incidence that occurs when the sound beam strikes the boundary between different media at an angle other than 90 degrees

AKA - Non-Perpendicular Incidence, Acute Incidence, Obtuse Incidence

*The incidence angle is greater than 0

*The reflected sound may not return back to the source

*The transmitted sound may travel in a direction different from the incident sound or it may travel in the same direction

### When does reflection occur in an oblique incidence?

We cannot predict reflection and transmission because of the complicated physics that is involved

### Law of Conservation of Energy (Sound)

Percent of Reflected Sound + Percent of Transmitted Sound = 100%

### Law of Conservation of Energy (Intensity)

Incident Intensity = Reflected Intensity + Transmitted Intensity

### Reflection Angle = Incident Angle

The reflection that occurs with oblique incidence does not return back to the transducer, but is reflected in a different direction

### Angle of Reflection = Angle of Incidence

Angle of Incidence: The angle between the incident sound beam and an imaginary online that is perpendicular to the boundary

Angle of Reflection: The angle between the reflected sound beam and an imaginary line that is perpendicular to the boundary

### What are the three factors associated to transmission with oblique incidence?

1. Cannot be predicted

2. It might travel in the same direction

3. It might change direction

### What is the definition of refraction?

A sound beam that is transmitted in a direction different from the direction that the incident sound beam is traveling

### What are the two requirements for refraction?

1. Oblique Incidence

2. Propagation speeds in the media on either side of the boundary are different

### Will refraction occur in an oblique incidence with the media having the same propagation speeds?

No.

*Remember that although we use a single propagation speed in soft tissues, this parameter changes in the same tissue.

### What is Snell's Law?

The law that defines the physics of refraction.

1. If the propagation speeds of sound in both media are the same, there will be no refraction

2. If the propagation speed of sound in the second medium is greater than the first medium, the transmission angle is greater than the incident angle