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Thinking critically with Psychological Science

random sampling

in order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every 15th person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of

double-blind procedure

researchers and subjects in a drug-evaluation study are both ignorant about which subjects have actually received an experimental drug and which were given a placebo. This investigation involves the use of


in a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic. This nonalcoholic drink was a

statistically significant

saying that the different between two groups is ____ means the difference is probably not due to a chance variation


the standard deviation of intelligence scores at Harvard is likely _____ than the standard deviation of intelligence scores at a community college


Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affection. Her belief best illustrates a ____ perspective.

naturalistic observation

psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a research method know as

correlation does not prove causation

if those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively, this would not necessarily indicate that watching TV violence influences aggressive behavior because

illusory correlation

karen dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Karen concluded that most of her dreams accuratey predict future events. Her belief best illustrates

case study

in order ot understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client's current life situation and his physical, social, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist employed?


in a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ____ variable

hindsight bias

refers to people's tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events


which correlation affords the greatest predictive value:

experimental treatment

in the control condition of an experiement, what is absent?


a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called


technique that involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different subjects and in different circumstances


Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors. This viewpoint best illlustrates the ___ perspective


method that is most helpful for revealing cause-and-effect relationships

contemporary psychology

is best defined as the science of behavior and mental processes


people often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ____ cases

false consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes


a testable prediction that gives direction to research

cognitive perspective

the ___ in psychology emphasizes how people process, store, and retrieve info


Dr. Lewis is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lewis is most likely what kind of psychologist?

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation

independent variable

the experimental factor that is being measured

operational definition

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables


recreation of a study, usually with different subjects and situations, yet getting similar results


a statistical measure that indicates how two factors vary together and how one can be used to predict the other


a testable prediction


an inert substance or condition

random assignment

assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance

hindsight bias

things that don't seem obvious beforehand, seem so after an experiment or historical episode

critical thinking

examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated

control condition

serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the experimental treatment

false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate the extent that others share our beliefs and behaviors

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth


all the members of a group from which samples are drawn for a study


a research method involving participants answering a fixed set of questions

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