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41 terms

PSYC 2000 Lesson 1

Thinking critically with Psychological Science
STUDY
PLAY
random sampling
in order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every 15th person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of
double-blind procedure
researchers and subjects in a drug-evaluation study are both ignorant about which subjects have actually received an experimental drug and which were given a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
placebo
in a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic. This nonalcoholic drink was a
statistically significant
saying that the different between two groups is ____ means the difference is probably not due to a chance variation
smaller
the standard deviation of intelligence scores at Harvard is likely _____ than the standard deviation of intelligence scores at a community college
behavioral
Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affection. Her belief best illustrates a ____ perspective.
naturalistic observation
psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a research method know as
correlation does not prove causation
if those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively, this would not necessarily indicate that watching TV violence influences aggressive behavior because
illusory correlation
karen dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Karen concluded that most of her dreams accuratey predict future events. Her belief best illustrates
case study
in order ot understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client's current life situation and his physical, social, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist employed?
independent
in a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ____ variable
hindsight bias
refers to people's tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events
+.50
which correlation affords the greatest predictive value:
.00
+.50
-.10
+.01
-.05
experimental treatment
in the control condition of an experiement, what is absent?
correlation
a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called
replication
technique that involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different subjects and in different circumstances
evolutionary
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors. This viewpoint best illlustrates the ___ perspective
experiment
method that is most helpful for revealing cause-and-effect relationships
contemporary psychology
is best defined as the science of behavior and mental processes
vivid
people often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ____ cases
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes
hypothesis
a testable prediction that gives direction to research
cognitive perspective
the ___ in psychology emphasizes how people process, store, and retrieve info
industrial/organizational
Dr. Lewis is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lewis is most likely what kind of psychologist?
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation
independent variable
the experimental factor that is being measured
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
replication
recreation of a study, usually with different subjects and situations, yet getting similar results
correlation
a statistical measure that indicates how two factors vary together and how one can be used to predict the other
hypothesis
a testable prediction
placebo
an inert substance or condition
random assignment
assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance
hindsight bias
things that don't seem obvious beforehand, seem so after an experiment or historical episode
critical thinking
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated
control condition
serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the experimental treatment
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate the extent that others share our beliefs and behaviors
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth
population
all the members of a group from which samples are drawn for a study
survey
a research method involving participants answering a fixed set of questions