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159 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 7 & 8

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nas/o
nose
sinus/o
sinuses
pharyng/o
pharynx
laryng/o
larynx
epiglott/o
epiglottis
trache/o
trachea
bronch/o, bronchi/o
bronchi
alveol/o
alveoli
pheum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o
lungs
function of the respiratory system
bring oxygen-rich air to the blood cells
function of the oxygenated blood
delivers oxygen to body tissues
function of the respiratory system
expel waste products returned to the lungs by the blood
function of the respiratory system
produce the airflow through the larynx that makes speech possible
upper respiratory tract
nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory tract
bronchial tree and lungs
septum
a wall that separates two chambers
cilia
thin hairs in the nostrils (and intestines) that filter air to remove debris
mucus
secreted by the mucous membranes
olfactory receptors
nerve endings; sense of smell
tonsils
form a protective circle around the entrance to the respiratory system
paranasal sinuses
located in the bones of the skull
paranasal sinuses
connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts
para-
near
nas
nose
sinus
air-filled cavity within a bone that is line with mucous membrane
Fx of the sinus
to make bones of the skull lighter, help produce sound by giving resonance to the voice, to produce mucus to provide additional lubrication for the tissues of the nasal cavity
frontal sinuses
located in the frontal bone above the eyebrows
sphenoid sinuses
located close to the optic nerves, infection can cause vision damage
maxillary sinuses
largest (max), located in the maxillary bones
ethmoid sinuses
irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone
pharynx
throat
nasopharynx
first division, posterior to the nasal cavity, continues behind the mouth
nasopharynx
allows only for the passage of air
oropharynx
visible when looking into the mouth
oropharynx
transports air, food, and fluids downward to the laryngopharynx
laryngopharynx
shared by the resp and digest systems.
larynx
voice box
larynx
protected and held open by a series of nine separate cartilages
thyroid cartilage
Adam's apple
larynx
contains the vocal cords
soft palate
posterior portion of the roof of the mouth
soft palate
moves up and backward to close off the nasopharynx
soft palate
prevents food or liquid from going up into the nose
epiglottis
lidlike structure located at the base of the tongue
epiglottis
swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so food does not enter the trachea and the lungs
trachea
windpipe
the two branches of the trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchi
alveoli
air sacs
alveoli
very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole
lungs
divided into lobes
right lung
has three lobes
right lung
superior, middle, and inferior lobes
left lung
has two lobes
left lung
superior and inferior lobes
left lung
smaller
mediastinum
located between the lungs
mediastinum
contains connective tissue and organs including the heart and its veins and arteries, the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, the thymus gland and lymph nodes
pleura
thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs
pleura
lines the inner surface of the rib cage
separates the two layers of the pleura
a thin film of fluid
parietal pleura
outer laer of the pleura that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
parietal
relating to the walls of a cavity
visceral pleura
inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung
visceral
pertaining to the internal organs
pleural space
pleural cavity
pleural space
airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes containing a thin layer of fluid
pleural
pertaining to the pleura
diaphragm
the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen
phrenic nerve
stimulates the diaphragm and causes it to contract
phren
diaphragm
respiration
the exchange of the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life
external respiration
breathing
intercostal muscles
move the rib cage during breathing
inhalation
inhaling
exhalation
exhaling
diaphrgam contracts
on inhalation
on exhalation
the diaphragm relaxes
as air is inhaled into the alveoli
O2 immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries and is carried by the erythrocytes to all body cells
as air is exhaled
waste product CO2 passes from the capillaries into the airspaces of the lungs
internal respiration
the exchange of gases within the cells of all the body organs and tissues
internal respiration
oxygen passes from the bloodstream into the tissue cells
internal respiration
carbon dioxide passes from the tissue cells into the bloodstream
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
emphysema
a decrease in the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, the progressive destruction of the walls of the remaining alveoli
asthma
a chronic allergic disorder
upper respiratory infection
common cold
nasopharyngitis
common cold
allergic rhinitis
allergy
croup
acute respiratory syndrome in children
croup
characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
diphtheria
acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper resp tract
diphtheria
bacteria produce toxins that can damage the heart muscle and peripheral nerves
epistaxis
nosebleed
influenza
flu
influenza
acute, highly contagious viral resp. infection
pertussis
whooping cough
pertussis
contagious bacterial infection of the U.resp. tract
pertussis
recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness and a noisy inspiration
paroxysmal
sudden or spasm-like
rhinorrhea
runny nose
surgical removal of all or part of a lung
pneumonectomy
surgical incision into the wall of the chest
thoracotomy
measures physiologial activity during sleep
polysomnography
bleeding from the lungs
pneumorrhagia
an abnormally slow rate of respiration
bradypnea
surgical removal of the larynx
laryngectomy
suffix meaning breathing
pnea
childhood respiratory disease characterized by a barking cough
croup
spitting blood
hemoptysis
nosebleed
epistaxis
blue skin color due to lack of oxygen
cyanosis
air sacs within the lungs
alveoli
phlegm ejected through the mouth
sputum
an inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura in the thoracic cavity
pleurisy
having below normal oxygen level in the blood
hypoxemia
puncture of the chest wall with a needle to remove fluid
thoracentesis
suffix meaning enlargement
ectasis
inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngitis
absence of spontaneous respiration
apnea
an agent that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchodilator
surgical repair of the trachea
tracheaplasty
an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
empyema
the sense of smell
olfactory
abbreviation for sudden infant death syndrome
SIDS
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
laryngoplegia
paralysis of the larynx
laryngospasm
sudden spasmodic closure
aphonia
the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
dysphonia
any change in vocal quality including hoarseness, weakness
dysphonia
the cracking of a boy's voice in puberty
bronchiectasis
chronic, irreversible enlargement of bronchi or bronchioles
bronchiectasis
result of a lung infection
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
pleurisy
can be caused by influenza or by damage to the lung beneath the pleura
pleurodynia
pain in the pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumothorax
the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that can make the lung collapse
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
effusion
the escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or a cavity
empyema
pyothorax
empyema
accumulation of pus, or infected fluid, in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
hemoptysis
a coughing up of blood
ards
acute respiratory distress syndrome
ards
sudden onset severe lung dysfunction
pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in lung tissues
edema
swelling
pneumorrhagia
bleeding from the lungs
atelectasis
lung fails to expand completely because of shallow breathing
atel
incomplete
tuberculosis
infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
mycoplasma pneumonia
atypical or walking pneumonia
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
caused by an infection of fungus
interstitial lung diseases
a group of amost 200 diseases that cause inflammation
interstitial fibrosis
inflammation and thickening of the walls of the alveoli
fibrosis
normal tissue is replace by fibrotic tissue
firbrotic
hardened tissue
pneumoconiosis
abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs
coni
dust