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Chapter 15

Terms in this set (50)

sympathomimetic amines that act to stimulate beta-adrenergic receptors of vascular smooth muscle and cause vasoconstriction. results in nasal decongestion, contraction of GI and urinary sphincters, pupil dilation, and decreased pancreatic beta-cell secretion. pseudoephedrine also has beta-adrenergic properties that cause relaxation of the bronchi
in SNS, adrenergic effector cells contain two distinct receptors, the alpha and beta receptors. sympathomimetic drugs mimic the action of norepinephrine on sympathetic effector organs, thereby affecting the adrenergic receptors. important alpha adrenergic activities include: 1. vasoconstriction of arterioles, leading to increased blood pressure; 2. dilation of the pupils; 3. intestinal relaxation; and 4. bladder sphincter contraction. beta receptors are divided into 1 and 2 receptors because some drugs affect some, but not all beta receptors. beta 1-adrenergic activity includes 1. cardioacceleration and 2. increased myocardial contractility, whereas beta 1-stimulation leads to 1. vasodilation of skeletal muscle, 2. bronchodilation, 3. uterine relaxation, and 4. bladder relaxation
pseudoephedrine HCl/phenylephrine is an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist (sympathomimetic) that produces vasoconstriction by stimulating alpha-receptors in mucosa of respiratory tract. reduces tissue edema and nasal congestion, increases nasal airway patency, promotes drainage of sinus secretions, and opens obstructed eustachian ostia
phenylephrine acts on alpha-adrenergic receptors and can be administered orally or topically to relieve nasal congestion in URI, sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis. efficacy of oral phenylephrine has not been studied extensively
nasal sprays or inhaled (topical application of) decongestants to nasal mucous membranes causes vasoconstriction, resulting in shrinkage, promoting drainage and better breathing through nasal passages. inhaled agents produce reduced systemic effects compared with oral preparations, achieving decongestion without causing sudden or wide changes in blood pressure, cardiac stimulation, or vascular redistribution
oxymetazoline is topical direct-acting sympathomimetic amine that acts on alpha-adrenergic receptors of nasal mucosa, causing vasoconstriction and resulting in decreased blood flow and decreased nasal congestion