Acute Kidney Injury

Patient with positive urine dipstick test for blood with no RBCs indicates?
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Most LIKELY site/cause of AKI in Patient with FENa: - <1% =? - 1-2% =? - >2-3% = ?- <1% = prerenal - 1-2% = intrinsic renal/ diuretic use - >2-3% = ATNSystemic manifestation of acute kidney injury?Metabolic acidosis •Hyperphosphatemia •Hyperkalemia •Hypercalcemia/hypocalcemiaPatient with AKI Complication of Hyperkalemia. What is the initial treatment?Calcium gluconate 10% solution - 10 mL IV • Cardio protective/membrane stabilizer • Temporarily reverses the neuromuscular effects of hyperkalemia Insulin 10 Units IV and Glucose 25 gm/Inhaled beta agonist/Sodium Bicarb -Temporarily shifts K+ intracellularly Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate [25-50g orally or 50 g with 150 mL tap water rectally] OR Patiromer -Eliminates K+Patient with AKI, when is dialysis indicated?-Hyperkalemia refractory to medical therapy or >6.5 -Volume overload unresponsive to diuretics - Metabolic acidosis with pH < 7. 1 -Uremic pericarditis/Encephalopathy-AMS/Neuropathy -Poisonings and intoxications [Ethylene glycol, lithium]Patient on ACE/ARB; Creatinine is increased. What is the necessary increase necessary for us to discontinue the ACE-I/AR and evaluate for other causes of renal dysfuction.If creatinine increases by more than 30%, agent (ACE-I or ARB) should be discontinued and other causes of renal dysfunction should be evaluated.