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66 terms

A&P1 Final Ch 8 & 9 L8

Joints of the Skeletal System & Muscular System
STUDY
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epimysium
The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the
actin and myosin
Myofibrils are composed primarily of
sarcomere organization
The striated appearance of skeletal muscle results from the
transmit muscle impulses into the cell interior
Transverse tubules
cordlike and connects muscles to bones; a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to muscles
A tendon is _________, whereas an aponeurosis is ___________.
sarcomere
The functional unit of muscle contraction is the
motor neuron endings
Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles in
oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen liver cells require to react lactic acid to produce glucose or the glycogen glycogen is the ________.
decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium
Rigor mortis affects skeletal muscles a few hours after death, due to _________.
synapse
The functional connection between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is a
4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5
4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.
1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.
3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.
6. Tropomyosin molecules bind to exposed active sites, linking actin and myosin
2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.
5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.
Arrange the following steps for contraction in the correct sequence.
creatine phosphate supplies energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate
The relationship between ATP and creatine phosphate is that
a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it
A motor unit is.
the more active they are, the more heat is released.
Skeletal muscles help maintain body temperature in that
minimal amount of energy required to contract a muscle fiber.
Threshold stimulus is the
a recording of the events of a twitch.
A myogram is
muscle tone
An example of a partial but sustained contraction is .
isometric.
A plank position is part of a yoga/Pilates workout. The person supports the body on the floor in a prone position with the arms and feet supporting the body. It is a little like the "up" position of a push-up, held for 30 to 60 seconds. Contraction of the abdominal muscles in a plank is most likely
refractory period.
The very brief moment following stimulation when a muscle remains unresponsive to additional stimulation is called the
transverse tubules and striations.
Smooth muscle lacks
calmodulin
Smooth muscle has ________ and not troponin.
contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly.
Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
smooth muscle contraction.
Both acetylcholine and norepinephrine can affect
intercalated discs.
The structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are
all of the above.
Cardiac muscle
insertion.
The movable end of a muscle is its
prime mover.
The muscle primarily responsible for an action is the
synergist
A muscle that assists a prime mover is a(n) .
a band of tough connective tissue to which abdominal wall muscles attach.
The linea alba is
Mandibular
Which of the following is not a muscle of mastication?
trapezius and latissimus dorsi.
The triangle of auscultation, commonly used to hear sounds of respiratory organs, is located near the border of the
gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
A gluteal gait, in which a person walks with a waddling limp, is usually caused by a disorder of the
about two-thirds of the normal number of acetylcholine receptors
People with myasthenia gravis lack
an autoimmune disorder.
Myasthenia gravis is
muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.
Weightlifting, in which a muscle exerts more than 75% of its maximum tension, stimulates
all of the above.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome causes
True
Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers.
True
Layers of dense connective tissue that separate skeletal muscles from each other are called fascia.
True
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it controls constitute a motor unit.
False
If a muscle contracts and its fibers shorten, the contraction is isometric.
False
White muscles have an increased capacity to carry on aerobic respiration.
False
Cardiac muscle is voluntary.
True
Muscles and bones function as levers.
True
The masseter muscle functions in mastication.
aponeuroses.
A broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that attaches the coverings of adjacent muscles is called an
myoglobin
The pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle is
acetylcholine
In order to stimulate skeletal muscle fibers, motor neurons release the neurotransmitter
tetanic contraction
A forceful, sustained muscle contraction is called a
lactic acid
Muscle fatigue is most likely due to an accumulation of
summation
The combining of a series of twitches to produce a sustained contraction is called
peristalsis
The rhythmic, wavelike motion produced by smooth muscles in tubular visceral organs is called
1st
A see-saw is an example of a _____ class lever.
Biceps femoris
flexes knee, rotates leg laterally and extends thigh
Gluteus maximus
extends hip
Gracilis
adducts thigh, flexes knee
biceps brachii
flexes elbow and rotates hand laterally
latissimus dorsi
extends, adducts and rotates arm medially or pulls houlder down and back
Deltoid
abducts, extends and flexes arm
splenus capitus
rotates head, bend head to one side, extends neck
epicranius
raises eyebrows
zygomaticus major
raises corner of mouth
masseter
elevates mandible
Slow twitch (type I fibers) are resistant to fatigue.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
2nd
The resistance is located between the fulcrum and the force in a ______ class lever.
I bands are composed of actin
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
latent period
In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the