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Govt Chp 3.3 Muncipal Politics
Terms in this set (24)
What type of elections are all TX cities and special districits are and why?
nonpartisan elections (no show party on ballot) in order to reduce the role of poltical parties in local polticis
What are the 2 neg consequences of nonpartisan elections?
1. Poltical parties don't have excitiment, so low voter turnout for local elections
2. Voters are radically polarized (vote for own race or ethnicity) and voters mostly white and middle class -- no represent minorites and working class less
3. Nonpartisan elctions tend to be more personal and less issue orientated
* votes focus on perosonaltity than issues -- elections decided by friends and neighbors
What are 2 ways to organized city elections instead of nonpartison?
1. At-large elections (council memebers elected by citywide basis)
2. Single-member district elections
(voters vote for one candiate in their district)
What type of election do cities mostly use?
How do at-large elections work against ethnic minorities?
In this election type, the city's major ethnic group is the majoirty in electioral contests (Anglos/whites)
When do representative bodies elected from districts must redistrict and why?
Every 10 year census in order to reflect the shifts of the pop in cities and b/t districtis
When is redistricing unessary?
For at-large or cumulative voting
What did the Shelby v Holder 2013 SC Case do?
It changed the rule that all TX govts needed to get clearnace form the US Attonry general or Federal district Court for District of Colubia to change voting; now now preclarance is altered?
Why is redistricting an issue at the local level?
The ethnic representation of Lations have become growing in state pop and incraease in urban areas -- need to be redrawn to give enought Latino pop a good Latino candiate to win -- still low latino voter turnout
What does dividing a city into single-member districts do and what issue reductes the # of single member districts?
It creats districts with a majority of ethnic minorites and increase the chances of electing a minoirty candinate to city council
However, low voter turnout of ethnic minorities reduce effect of single-member districts
Which city of 10 largest in TX still not adopt a single-member districts of mix of large + single and what does it use still?
City of Plano still elects all council members at an at-large basis
What is cumulative voting and what is supposed do?
Cumulative voting is an election system were voters can cast votes to positons avialbable for multiple candiaties
Used to increase minority representation
When do cultaive voting changes increases
When racial minority votes are a numberial minority, cumulative voting will increase to have represenation
What government entitty/name has the largest in-state use of cumulative voting?
The Amarillo Indept School District
When do people want to overturn term-limit local laws?
When populary elected officals can't run for relection
Is there more decreasing or increaseing term limits
More increasing term limits
What organizaton promots term limits?
The US term Limits (USTL) is a national, nonprofit organization that lobbies for term limits at local, state, and national govt levels
What 3 factors increase demands on local govt and make higher public spending?
1. Increase pop
3. Increase citizen organizations
3. Increase personal income
What city is TX most diverse local poltical system?
Why has the face of local govt changed (6)?
1. Increase single member districts
2. Greater pluralism in TX
3. Increase pop
4. Increase of organizations
5. Greater political activity in minorities
What do people think is the govt's major jobs and what services are most expensive? (6)
1. Police and fire protection
6. parks and recreation
What is a major fiancialy concern in local govts in states and cities and what has it led to?
The increased liability for employee pensions and other retirment benefits
It has led to low employee salaries in exhange for better retirment benefits
In addition, there is a concern that $ for funding pensions takes away $ for city services
What is the current solution to the pension plan for Houston?
City employees add more to their pensions, accept beneift cuts, in order to fund $ for pension funds
2 methods used to increae ethinic/racial minorty voting of elected officals?
single member districts and cumulative voting
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