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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Period 5
Civil War leadup, duration, and Reconstruction
Terms in this set (82)
Morrill Land Grant Act
United States statutes including the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.
Significance: The Morrill Land Grant Acts allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges were funded by and given to states by the government. The land was then sold to start a university. Land-grant colleges were created in response to the Industrial Revolution, and aimed to increase states' ability to teach agriculture, science, and engineering.
Pacific Railway Act
Acts meant to promote the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad by issuing bonds and land grants to railroad companies.
Significance: The original act, passed in 1862 and later modified, was the first time land grants had been given directly to companies. It wa approved by Abraham Lincoln and aimed to fund the creation of a railroad from Iowa to California. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad companies were given this land.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Lincoln's plan for the reunification of the United States.
Significance: By December 1863, it had become clear that the winner of the war would most likely be the Union. Lincoln saw a need for postwar reconstruction plans, and decided to make the Proclamation of Amnesty easy on the South, returning property to Confederates who decided to be faithful to the Union.
Several acts passed in 1867 made to put the union back together after the civil war.
Significance: The Reconstruction Acts took ideas from Lincoln's Plan, Johnson's Plan, and the thoughts of the radical Republicans. The South was divided into five military districts, and each state had to accept the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. They also had to pledge allegiance to the Union.
The amendment passed on January 31, 1865, which formally abolished slavery in the US.
Significance: The thirteenth amendment eliminated involuntary servitude unless it was punishment for a crime. It was the first of the Reconstruction Amendments and aimed to, after the war and Emancipation Proclamation, make the status of slaves clear.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
A treaty signed in February of 1848 made to establish peace between Mexico and the United States.
Significance: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican American War. It established the countries' boundaries and excited the idea of Manifest Destiny as the US gained California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah territory. Whigs opposed this treaty.
A bill written by two radical republicans, Wade and Davis, in 1864.
Significance: The Wade-Davis Bill was made in opposition to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. It stated that the majority in each Southern state had to take the Ironclad Oath to be admitted to the Union. The bill passed both houses of Congress, but was vetoed.
The proposition of banning slavery in territory obtained from Mexico (Mexican Cession), introduced by David Wilmot in 1846.
Significance: After the Mexican-American War, new territory had to be claimed as either slave or free. The Wilmot Proviso was made to be a part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but never was. However, it made people aware of disputes over slavery, leading to negotiations such as the Compromise of 1850.
John Wilkes Booth
The stage actor who assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865.
Significance: Booth and several other Confederates had planned to kill Lincoln, Seward, and Johnson. Only Booth succeeded in his task of killing Lincoln, and many were upset over Lincoln's death, believing that reconstruction would have been easier had he been alive.
A violent abolitionist alive from 1800-1859.
Significance: John Brown was responsible for the deaths of five slavery supporters at Pottawatomie Creek and took part in the 1856 conflict in Kansas ("bleeding Kansas"). He also attempted to lead a slave revolt in his Raid at Harpers Ferry, which both Harriet Tubman and Frederic Douglass refused to take part in.
The 15th president of the United States.
Significance: Buchanan was the president immediately prior to the Civil War. He was nominated by the Democratic Party and ran against Millard Fillmore. Upon winning, he did nothing to reunite the union and is ranked as one of the worst American presidents.
A Northerner who travelled to the South during the Reconstruction Era to profit from the instability of the states.
Significance: Carpetbaggers influenced the political climate of the south by migrating and seeking profit. The term was also used to describe Republican political figures appointed to the South.
The former Secretary of State, presidential candidate, and war hero who Lincoln later admired.
Significance: Clay didn't want to see the issue of slavery in politics, so he opposed the annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, and Manifest Destiny. He worked on compromises during the Nullification Crisis, including the Compromises of 1820 and 1850.
Massachusetts Whigs that opposed slavery for moral reasons.
Significance: Conscience Whigs, led by Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson, and Charles Francis Adams, split the Whig party after Zachary Taylor, a slave owner, became president identifying as a Whig in 1848. The Free Soil Party and Republican Party were founded in part by Conscience Whigs.
The president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
Significance: Davis was a far less effective wartime leader than Lincoln, despite his previous experience in the Mexican-American War. He was unable to pull the Confederacy together and, upon the Confederate defeat in the Civil War, urged citizens to pledge allegiance to the Union.
An influential Democratic politician primarily remembered for the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 and his creation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Significance: After working on the Compromise of 1850, Douglas wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and put his belief in popular sovereignty into action. Opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act eventually led to the creation of the Republican Party.
Free Soil Party
A party composed of primarily anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, active in the 1848 and 1852 elections.
Significance: The Free Soil Party agreed with the Wilmot Proviso, opposing the expansion of slavery into new territories. This party was later absorbed into the Republican Party.
The 13th US president and last Whig president.
Significance: Fillmore did not have strong opinions on slavery, and hence supported the Compromise of 1850. He ignored demands to stop the spread of slavery and focused on outside concerns, such as trade with Japan. HE later ran for president as a part of the Know-Nothing Party, but lost.
John C. Fremont
An explorer and soldier during the Mexican-American War and the first presidential candidate of the Republican Party.
Significance: Fremont ran for president in 1856, but lost to James Buchanan due to Know-Nothings splitting the vote. He was appointed the commander of the Department of the West by Lincoln during the Civil War, but made poor decisions. After dismissed from this position, Ulysses S. Grant promoted him to commander at a strategic base in Illinois.
A widely recognized railroad developer in the mid to late 1800s.
Significance: Gould, during the Panic of 1857, purchased stock in the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railway Company. During the Civil War, he further accumulated control over the company.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. Placed democracy in a superior rank over other governmental systems.
maintained slavery in the proposed state and protected the rights of slaveholders-written in response to anti-slavery movements in the 1850s. Backed by Buchanan and split the democrats.
Morrill Tariff Act
An increased tariff in the United States, passed by Buchanan-fostered industrial growth.
A strategy used to subdue states from seceding from the United States during the Civil War. Surrounded the South from South Carolina.
A series of violent political confrontations between anti and pro slavery organizations (1854-1861). The groups, respectively, were called the Free-Starters and the Border Ruffians.
U.S. Federal government agency that aided freed slaves in finding work, education, a place in politics, etc.
despite the court's ruling, slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery. Likewise, if the people of the territory supported slavery, legislation would provide for its continued existence.
A notion held by nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Placed democracy in a superior rank over other governmental systems.
The notion that the authority of the government is made by the consent of the people-applied to the decision of the people as to whether or not a state was free or slave.
Strategic resources and military targets in the Civil War-determined where/how movements would develop (i.e. Antietam-location due to access).
A system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land. Came about as a response to economic upheaval during Reconstruction-poor farmers earned a living off of employing freed slaves.
A network of secret routes and safe houses that aided in the escape of slaves in the 19th century-supported by abolitionists and came as a result from the grievance of slavery during the Civil War.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The first United States federal law to define US citizenship-affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law. Vetoed by Johnson twice, but eventually became law.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era that guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited exclusion from jury service. Ruled unconstitutional.
1863-a war measure enacted by Lincoln that claimed that slaves were contraband in states in rebellion, and that they were being confiscated. Owners were not compensated, but slavery was also not outlawed. This was a temporary move on Lincoln's part, because slaves would only remain contraband during the war.
Passed in 1870; prohibited state or federal government from denying anyone the right to vote.
Passed in 1868 as a Reconstructive movement; made that all people born in the US are US citizens-including slaves.
Fugitive Slave Law
Part of the Compromise of 1850-required that all slaves were to be returned to their master upon capture. Stemmed from slave escapes to the north, resulting in unstable slavery institutions in the border states.
region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the United States in 1854-aided with transcontinental railroad.
Laws that gave applicants plots of land to encourage westward expansion and settlement.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1873) and (1873-1877) The 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution Administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Crédit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring conspiracy. He was more successful in foreign affairs, where he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of former slaves.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
..., Commander in Chief; known for his leading role in bringing Texas into the United States;
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
A group of Republicans for reform; they vouched for purification of the administration in Washington, and argued against military Reconstruction
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
..., A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
..., A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
Matthew C. Perry
..., Commodore sent to Japan to persuade that country to open up its ports to trade with Americans. In 1854, he convinced Japan's government to agree to a treaty that opened two Japanese ports to U.S. trading vessels
..., Democrat (1853-1857), Candidate from the North who could please the South. His success in securing the Gadsden Purchase was overshadowed by the controversy surrounding the Ostend Manifesto, the Kansas Nebraska Act and "Bleeding Kansas." Passions over slavery had been further inflamed, and the North and South were more irreconcilable than before. He succeeded only in splitting the country further apart.
James K. Polk
..., (1845-1849) The Mexican War starts in 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the war in 1848. Wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. Wanted to aquire California and to incorperate Texas into union, while reducing the tarriff and re-establish an independent treasury system.
..., A shifting group of Republican congressmen, usually a substantial minority, who favored the abolition of slavery from the beginning of the Civil War and later advocated harsh treatment of the defeated South
..., 1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
..., A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners, southern whites who supported reconstruction
Harriet Beecher Stowe
..., (1811-1896) American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
..., An American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory.
..., A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
..., As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
..., (1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
..., ..., United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
..., (1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
..., A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
Compromise of 1850
..., (MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Compromise of 1877
..., -Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
..., Conscription Act in 1863 forced men between 20-45 years old to be eligible for conscription but one could avoid it if they paid 300 or got someone in their place; provoked anger from poor workers
Dred Scott v. Sandford
..., 1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that livig in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
Election of 1860
..., Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
..., 1848 California. gold discovered at Sutter's Mill. attracted thousands of settlers(49ers). created need for gov. in Cali. San Fras turned into "boom town". brought issue of slavery to territories. SECTIONAL BALANCE 15-15
Harper's Ferry Raid
..., Occurred in October of 1859. John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves. He wanted to ride down the river and provide the slaves with arms from the North, but he failed to get the slaves organized. Brown was captured. The effects of Harper's Ferry Raid were as such: the South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
..., 1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Panic of 1857
..., A notable sudden collapse in the economy caused by over speculation in railroads and lands, false banking practices, and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Since it did not effect the South as bad as the North, they gained a sense of superiority.
Panic of 1873
..., (USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
..., Sumner was an MA senator and unyielding foe of slavery. He was physically attacked by Senator Brooks of SC in retaliation for a two-day speech made denouncing the proslavery Missourians who had crossed into Kansas and Brook's pro-slavery uncle who supported the Missourians- showed the split of the government
William "Boss" Tweed
..., Political Machine Leader of NYC's Tammany Hall. Corrupt in spending tax dollars. Benefit voters for votes and politicians for graft/greed.
..., A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
..., Five slave states-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia-that did not secede during the Civil War. To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
Confederate States of America
..., 11 southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861, Jefferson Davis was the president, Montgomery, AL was the capitol
..., John Brown rode with 4 sons & 2 others to Pottawatomie Creek; dragged 5 proslavery settlers from beds and murdered them
Last ditch effort to keep the union together.
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