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Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
DSM 5 + Textbook
Terms in this set (16)
What is the DSM definition of obsessions?
Obsessions - recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced as intrusive and unwanted.
What is the DSM definition of compulsions?
Compulsions - Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.
What purpose or function do compulsions serve?
The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive.
What are 2 common obsessions and 2 compulsions that apply to OCD?
· Common obsessions and compulsions:
- Cleaning (Contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions)
- Symmetry (symmetry obsessions and repeating, ordering, and counting compulsions)
- Forbidden or taboo thoughts (e.g., aggressive, sexual, or religious obsessions and related compulsions)
- Harm (e.g., fears of harm to oneself or others and checking compulsions)
Does a person need both obsessions and compulsions for an OCD diagnosis?
OCD is characterized by the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions (either one or both)
What are 2 ways that the obsessions and compulsions in OCD are viewed as "maladaptive" (e.g., causes significant distress, over an hour/day)?
· The obsessions and compulsions are time-consuming (e.g., take more than 1 hour per day) or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
- Obsessions are not pleasurable or experienced as voluntary: they are intrusive and unwanted and caused marked distress of anxiety in most individuals.
** Obsessions cause anxiety which result in compulsions to relieve anxiety
What is the primary concern of those with body dysmorphic disorder?
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder are preoccupied with one or more perceived defects or flaws in their physical appearance, which they believe look ugly, unattractive, abnormal, or deformed.
- The perceived flaws are not observable or appear only slight to other individuals, concerns range from looking "unattractive" or "not right" to looking "hideous" or "like a monster".
How does skin-picking differ in BDD from that of excoriation?
In BDD, skin picking is ONLY intended to improve the appearance of perceived skin defects. While in excoriation, individuals repeatedly pick their skin that it even leads to skin lesions.
How does hair removal differ in BDD from that of trichotillomania?
In BDD, hair removal (plucking, pulling, or other types of removal) is ONLY intended to improve the appearance of perceived defects in the appearance of facial or body hair. While in trichotillomania, an individual repeatedly pulls out one's hair, resulting in hair loss.
Why do those with hoarding disorder acquire and maintain so many possessions (Criterion B)?
Criterion B - This difficulty due to a perceived need to save the items and to distress associated with discarding them.
· Difficulty discarding obsessions = the accumulation of possessions that congest and clutter active living areas and substantially compromises their intended use (Criterion C)
Does the DSM diagnosis of hoarding disorder apply if hoarding is the result of a medical condition (e.g., brain injury)?
The hoarding is not attributable to another medical condition (e.g., brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, Prader Willi syndrome)
What is the recommended treatment for OCD? To what is a person "exposed" in ERP?
· First-line of treatment for OCD in adults is a form of behavioral therapy known as exposure and response prevention therapy.
- Starts with low anxiety stimuli then moves to high anxiety stimuli as clients become used to the lower levels
What is the "response prevention" part?
ERP is a therapy that encourages you to face your fears and let obsessive thoughts occur without 'putting them right' or 'neutralizing' them with compulsions.
What is one way a therapist could help enhance motivation for a person with hoarding disorder?
Helping a client to visualize how they can use their space, or what their bedroom will like after the clutter is removed, can be an effective tool in motivating change.
Do those with hoarding disorder usually seek treatment voluntarily?
Few people seek treatment for hoarding disorder. Rather, they are more likely to be prodded by family members to seek help for co-occurring depression or anxiety.
Motivational Interviewing and Hoarding Disorder -
Motivational interviewing (enhancing a client's motivation to change) can be helpful, as well as focusing on goals and instilling hope for future improvement.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
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