255 terms

Introduction to Children's Literature - Week 1

Week 1 Materials in the Required Readings folder: Introduction to Children's Literature
A story that relates its events in strictly in the order in which they occur is using.
a chronological or linear plot
Why is it important that children begin reading as early as possible? Select the best answer.
Elementary school ****
Children's literature is often expensive to produce--publishers need to be able to sell in quantity for each age group or we will not have any children's literature at all.****
The main genres of literature are . . .
poetry, drama, and prose.
Multiple choice. What standard did C. S. Lewis set for quality children's literature? The answer to this question is in a required reading lecture page in Blackboard.
Any work that an adult cannot enjoy is not suitable for children to read either.
A pun is
a play on words where the same or very similar word is used to convey two different meanings at the same time.
Multiple choice. What is the difference between "read-along" memorization and any other kind of memorization? Select the BEST answer.
Read-along memorization means that the child can repeat the words of a story along with someone reading the story aloud (or correct the reader who diverges from the story as written); straight memorization means a person can repeat written or other forms of information or material without any prompts.
"Genre" means
A type, category, or classification of literature
Although several answers below are problems with stereotyped characters in children's literature, which problem is the most serious? Select the BEST answer below.
They can be confusing or alienating for children whose experiences do not match the stereotypes
Multiple Choice. Which work of moral and political satire on 18th century England is often identified as children's literature because the satire uses fantasy?
Gulliver's Travels
Although all of the answers below are possible, and may be true of stories about adolescents in addition to the main plot conflict, which ONE is the most common and/or most popular plot conflict in stories about and for adolescents?
person against self
Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
Books often begin at an interesting part of the story and then give earlier events from the story when that background is necessary to understand the current action. Those brief plot elements from the past are called
"Lyric" means
Song-like, originally something that could be sung with music created by a lyre.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer. Although not intended then as children's literature in the modern sense, one of the earliest printed books of children's literature is . . .
Aesop's Fables (printed 1476).
The term "dialog" applied to discussing literature means
Conversations between two characters, especially in a literary work.
True novels, as opposed to Chapter Books, and poetry conveying thought-provoking ideas are suitable for children aged . . .
The term "vehicle" in literary analysis means. . .
something in literature that "carries" a meaning, such as a rose carrying the meaning "love."
A picture storybook with a simple plot about daily routines and familiar objects has been designed primarily for the child . . .
ages 2-4.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
"Performance reading" means. . .
reading a book aloud with different people reading different sections or one reader using different voices for different characters
Select the answer which is entirely correct.
Which of the following are the main parts of a plot?
Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Denouement
"Published for the general public primarily for entertainment" defines the . . .
trade book.
Suspension of disbelief means
accepting for the purposes of enjoying a story that fictional characters, events, settings, etc. are "real" even though we know they are not literally "real" outside of the story.
Of the following plot organization methods, which one is not suitable for early readers?
Didactic, as it applies to children's literature, means. . .
anything that teaches.
The term "bowdlerized" means
re-writing a classic, adult work, usually just by removing elements connected to sex, to make that work suitable for children
Which important research study found that reading aloud to children was an effective method of teaching children to read?
Becoming a Nation of Readers (Richard Anderson, et al.)
Popular children's literature in the late 19th and early 20th century emphasized the bad consequences of children not being obedient.
The report of the National Reading Panel (2000) did NOT identify the following as essential instructional components in the teaching of reading on the grounds that they could not be tested scientifically:
reading aloud, silent reading.
An allusion in writing is
a reference to an element in an earlier literary work or movie
Books that feature clearly defined objects and bright colors in contrast with a plain and lightly colored or white background have been designed primarily for . . .
babies and young children age 0-2.
True or false?
Narrative means any kind of recounting of events, such as a story or a written description of what you observe in a chemistry experiment.
Research findings on the fields of literature and reading indicate that . . .
reading aloud, especially reading to children, can improve children's reading ability and language development
A Native American woman living in a secluded North Carolina valley tells how, in 1806 on the Cherokee Indian Trail of Tears between North Carolina and the Oklahoma Territory, she and her sister escaped their captors, made their way back to their homeland, and lived in hiding for many years.
Although this scenario could have 3 of the 4 answers below, which literary feature is definitely present and MOST important in classifying such a story?
A story with multiple chunks of plot each with its own rising action and climax, working together towards the climax for the whole story is said to have . . .
an episodic plot.
Although research is still being conducted, most studies into children's perception of color in infancy say that children perceive the color blue first.
The most important feature for visuals in books for infants is
What is a "basal reader"?
an early education text book intended to teach the basics of reading
Newberry Awards
recognize the principles for children's literature promoted by John Newberry, especially using entertainment to instruct.
The NCTE Poetry Award. . .
recognizes and fosters excellence in children's poetry
What is the difference between narrative poetry and lyric poety? Select the BEST answer.
Narrative poetry must tell a story; lyric poetry must be "song-like."
What type of rhyme is used in this example?
A little learning is a dangerous thing
Drink deep or tast not the Perian Spring,
For there shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
and drinking largely sobers us again.
masculine rhyme
Multiple choice. What type of poetry is this? (Select the BEST answer)
A diner while dining at Crewe
Found quite a large mouse in his stew;
Said the waiter, "Don't shout,
And wave it about,
Or the rest will be wanting one, too."
What purpose does rhyme have in poetry? Select the BEST answer from the options below.
It forms patterns and units of lines, to show relationships between and among lines.
Which Figure of Thought is in this sentence:
The fresh jumbo shrimp were a much better choice for lunch than the fresh frozen cold hotdogs.
Which of the following is NOT a criterion for sonnets? Select the BEST answer.
Sonnets must be in iambic pentameter and end with a couplet (2 rhyming lines)
As Julia Kristeva uses the term, what is the symbolic? Select the BEST answer.
The element in language involving specific and literal meanings (denotation).
What does "preverbal" mean? Select the best answer.
The developmental stage before a child learns to use words
Poetry that is written and printed in a shape which mirrors the poem's subject is called
concrete poetry
Which of the following describes a quatrain? Select the BEST answer.
A set of four lines forming one unit in a poem.
What is the definition of "personification"? Select the BEST answer from the options below.
Using words that suggest qualities of life to describe something inanimate.
What is another term for a play? Select the BEST answer.
What is "verse" in its specialized meaning for studying literature? Select the BEST answer.
The general term for all poetry, without any implications about quality or literary merit.
Which sentence below is an example of euphemism? Select the BEST answer.
a nice metaphor or periphrasis for something unpleasant.
Which is more important to young children for poetry, figures of thought or figures of sound?
Figures of Sound
The term "Children's Theater" refers specifically to what type of plays/drama for children?
a play intended to be read silently rather than being performed.

a play with children as actors where the experience for the performers is at least as important as the pleasure of the audience.
What is a metaphor? Select ALL that apply.
Has two parts: tenor and vehicle
A specific type of comparison opposed to simile
A general (generic) term for all sorts of poetic comparison.
Frequent repetition of the same VOWEL sound within a line of poetry describes which Figure of Sound? Select the BEST answer.
What is "doggerel"? Select the BEST answer.
Poetry that "forces" the meter and/or has no subtlety in its use of rhyme.
Which of the following accurately defines "Reader-Response" criticism? Select the BEST answer.
Reader response criticism is based on the idea that each reader's background and/or experience combine with what s/he reads to create a slightly different work for each reader.
Who was the author of the first published collection of children's poetry, and what is the title of that collection?
Select the answer that has both the author and the title correct.
Charles Perrault, Mother Goose
The Charlotte B. Chorpenning Award is awarded each year for . . .
an author's body of work in children's poetry.

the best anthology of plays published in the previous year.

*********the best anthology of plays published in the previous year.
What is "nonsense poetry"? Select the BEST answer.
Poetry that looks and sounds like it should mean something but, either through non-existent words or illogical content, does not.
Which of the following features is NOT part of "The New Criticism"? Select the best answer.
Finding out information about the author
Which of the following sentences provides an example of alliteration? Select the BEST answer.
Betty Botter made some batter, but, she said, this batter's bitter.
According to Julia Kristeva's theories of the semiotic and symbolic, what should be the long-term effect of reading poetry to children?
Reading poetry aloud connects the semiotic to the symbolic which enhances the development of language acquisition.
Which ONE of the following sentences has an example of hyperbole? Select the BEST answer.
His arms dangled a mile from his sleeves.
As Julia Kristeva uses the term, what is the "semiotic"? Select the BEST answer.
The element in language that has to do with communication outside of the literal meanings of words such as tone, emphasis, and "body language."
Figures of Thought are . . .
a type of figure of speech that depend on manipulating ideas.
In a picture where the main subject is facing away from the reader/viewer and from other characters, of the options below, what emotion is the artist likely trying to convey? Select the BEST answer.
Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Concept books
can convey very basic concepts for small children, such as size or opposities, as well as more advanced concepts such as the difference in astronomy between a galaxy and a nebula.
True or false?
Graphic novels are exclusively intended for children.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
Van Gogh's Starry Night is an example of
the Expressionist art style.
Other than about a $20 difference in their prices, of the options below, what would tell you whether you are looking at a comic books or a graphic novels?
the art work in comic books is inferior and comic books have very short stories or story segments.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Baby books should be
one picture per page placed so that the emphasis is on the picture.
Which of the following answers apply to this question: What practical purpose do foregrounding, backgrounding, and perspective have?
Select all that apply and none that do not.
-These elements contribute to making a picture appear 3-dimensional.
-These elements can establish, in a picture with lots of elements, which one is most important or which two are equally important.
What are two reasons for using "sans serif" fonts (typefaces) instead of "serif" fonts in books for young children?
The serifs provide additional information to process and letters with serifs do not look like the letters children learn to print.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Books with elaborate interactive elements such as complex pop-ups, papers to fold or unfold, or envelopes to open are called
toy books
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete the following sentence:
Good picture books
contribute to children's ability to read but also develop artistic appreciation.
Of the options below, when we look at a page, what naturally attracts our attention unless the artist has used artistic devices to direct our attention elsewhere?
a large element (picture, part of a picture, or text) at the center of the page.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
An example of the repeated patterns essential to a Pattern Book is
a refrain that sets up an answer, such as "What do you see?" in Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Picture book illustrations . . .
are part of telling a story or essential to the story's meaning.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Picture storybooks
are what we most frequently mean by "picture books": the illustrations must either convey or significantly supplement the plot, characters and setting.
Which of the following answers BEST defines "perspective" as it applies to illustrations in children's literature?
Perspective means where the viewer's eye is directed in an illustration.
What does establishing "angle" tell you about a picture?
It tells you where the implied viewer is, such as just outside the picture or looking at the picture from a distance or looking in the same direction as an illustrated character.
Which of the following is an essential feature of quality art in children's books?
Primary colors (e.g., pastels are not suitable for children's books for any age).

Size (e.g., all pictures must take up at least 1/4 of the page).
An illustrated book is just another term for a picture book. True or False?
Which of the following would help establish age-appropriateness?
whether the pictures are simple or complex ("busy").
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
In an Interactive book. . .
a child gets a sound or new picture by doing a physical action such as pressing on a picture or lifting a flap.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
The impression of how a pictured object would feel (as in touch) is called
The illustrations in Dr. Seuss books are a good example of which art style?
Which of the answers below BEST explains foregrounding and backgrounding?
A picture with distinct foregrounding and backgrounding establishes some elements as close to the viewer (foregrounded), some elements as farther away, and some elements as very far away (background).
An illustrated book is just another term for a picture book. True or False?
Complete this sentence with the BEST answer below:
Of the different art styles, which ones are most often the best for children's books?
realism, magical realism, and cartoon art.
Photographs for children's books must be in color. True or False?
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence.
Books for "reluctant readers" who are 6 years old or older include
comic books and graphic novels suitable for children.
Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Artistic media as relevant to illustrations include
watercolors, pastels, ink, photography, and oils.
Of the usual division of American children's multicultural literature by race, which race has had the greatest percentage of American literature focused on that race?
Black Americans
Books representing diverse cultures
began to rise in number in the 1990s.
Select the best ending for this sentence:

Children's books that stereotype girls and women as exclusively passive are often classified as multicultural because. . .
gender stereotyping issues may lead to prejudice similar to how race or religion stereotypes may lead to prejudice.
Which of the following are problems in translated literature?
-Even good translations are based to some extent on the translator's understanding of a work.
-The literal meaning of standard phrases and cliches are conveyed differently in different languages, such as the English "buying a pig in a poke" and French "acheter chat en poche" (to buy (a) cat in (a) bag) both mean buying something when you don't really know what you are getting, but have different associations connected to pigs vs. cats.
-Literal, word for word translations are awkward and do not accurately convey the "sense" of the original.
Which of the following may be problems in the plan of assigning literature reflecting the culture and interests of "resistant readers"?
-The culture and interests of some resistant readers may be incompatible with reading.

-No age and reading-level appropriate books might exist that reflect a particular resistant reader's culture and interests
"Cultural authenticity" means that
members of the culture being portrayed must accept the portrayal as accurate (true).
What does "cultural mosaic" mean?
an approach that encourages a country's inhabitants to join a dominant culture.

a type of art that creates images by assembling or combining small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Which one of the following can be a problem for multicultural books on socio-economic status?
They often connect socio-economic status with race, promoting perspectives that all Black Americans are poor or all Jewish Americans are rich.
What was the "Underground Railroad."
A network of people who helped slaves escape from slavery to Northern States where slavery was illegal or to Canada.
Which of the cultures below are under-represented in children's multicultural literature?
books portraying Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu faiths.
Which of the following questions are based on issues that can interfere with accuracy in multicultural children's literature? Select all that apply.
-Are entirely accurate translations possible?
-Can someone who does not belong to a particular culture write an accurate book about that culture based solely on research?
-Do the experiences based on one part of a culture fully "fit" other parts of the same culture?
Some books that are marketed as "multicultural" may damage understanding rather than promoting it. Which of the following is an example of what would make a book that focuses on another culture damage understanding of that culture?
portrayals of a culture limited to stereotypical activities including those connected with traditional clothing, foods and holidays.
Books classified as international literature in the United States
include books published in any country other than America.
"Dual Language" books
have facing pages with the same story in different languages, usually with two authors, competent in both languages, collaborating.
According to Julius Lester, why did sharks swim beside slave ships?
because so many dead and dying slaves were thrown overboard on the trip to America.
From the following groups/categories, which one is most poorly represented in American children's multicultural literature?
differently-abled cultures such as Deaf culture
Anything that is not text/words "counts" as illustration for children's illustrated books.
Which of the following are criteria for children's illustrated books?
-Children's illustrated books should have at least a picture for most pages.
- Illustrations must do something more than decorate the book.
-Illustrations should be consistent (one artistic style or closely related artistic styles or artistic styles that have the same purpose).
"Children's Illustrated books" and "picture books" share some features but differ in their key purpose.
Which of the following are types of illustrated book?
-Books with accurate pictures and diagrams to show how to do or make something.
- Books with accurate pictures such as photographs specifically to show what something really looks like in factual books
-Books with accurate pictures to provide background or content.
The term "resistant readers" often assumes that
children able to read, but not reading or reading below grade level, are not trying to learn to read because the literature they have been given is not relevant to them.
What often interferes with parents and elementary/middle school teachers being able to select excellent multicultural works on their own?
Evaluating multicultural literature requires that the evaluator be fluent in both languages (for translated books) and extremely familiar with the specific culture being portrayed.
Officially, multicultural literature in America can be defined as
a literary work that accurately presents minority cultures, specifically any culture other than White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant and Catholic culture.
"Classic" children's books about races other than Caucasians, such as Little Black Sambo and Last of the Mohicans,
often reinforced stereotypes.
A key value of multicultural literature is
providing awareness of the value of ones own culture if that culture is not "dominant."
Which of the famous people listed below were slaves who in one way or another fought back?
-Sojourner Truth
-Frederick Douglass
-Nat Turner
The key skill for translating literature is artistic merit; translators do not need to understand the language of the work they are translating.
True or false?
Most slaves who escaped, according to Julius Lester, were caught and brought back by the white patrols.
True or false?
"Multicultural literature" will also belong in another category based on the type of literature, such as Picture Book, Poetry, Traditional Literature, etc.
True or False?
Which of the following are true? Select all correct answers and no incorrect answers.
Gerald McDermott has written several children's multicultural traditional tales, including Raven.
Which of the following is true in Raven?
Raven transforms himself into a pine needle which the Chief's granddaughter drinks
Which of the following are TRUE of myth? Select all that apply and none that don't.
-Myth teaches essential elements in a culture's identity: its values and mores.
-Cultures continually develop myths--not all myths are from the distant past.
-Myths are didactic: they teach something (directly or subtly).
Which popular folktale/fairy tale has raised concerns about gender stereotyping?
Creation stories, in terms of their literary classification, are
Cumulative tales are appropriate for
pre-school children as young as three.
Critics who believe that violent fairy tales should be shared in their original version would argue that
the original stories have psychological value such as assuring the child that the monster is no longer a threat.
Roland Barthes wrote
Characters in folk literature typically
are easily identified as good or bad.
Which one of the following attributes is generally true of "tall tales" known as "humorous tales"?
includes traditional jokes such as "Knock, knock" jokes.
anthropomorphize animals
Folktales focusing primarily on royalty and/or nobles are sometimes called
castle tales
Which new ending to a traditional tale would make the tale a "fractured fairy tale"?
The bears in Goldilocks and the Three Bears eating berries rather than porridge.
Goldilocks and the Three Bears ending with Goldilocks being mauled to death.
Why are the legends about King Arthur classified as legends rather than fairy tales?
Legends are originally based on real people.
The idea that similar myths and folkstales in cultures widely separate geographically can be explained by fundamental psychological similarity of humans is called
Select all that apply and none that don't. The story about George Washington is an example of
-an example of a legend
-a story that conveys a metaphor for George Washington's character.
Beast tales are a type of
In evaluating works of traditional literature, one should consider
whether spin-off marketing items, such as backpacks, bedding, and dolls, are available.
whether the story is part of the curriculum in the child's school.

According to the article "What's Wrong with Cinderella," why is Disney promoting the "princess" theme?
Princess clothing, such as long, bell-shaped skirts, is easier to draw and therefore reduces animation costs.
They want little girls to become more feminine.
Mythologists distinguish between stories that are "mythic" and those that are "myths." What criterion do they use to classify a story as "mythic" vs. "myth"?
How long a myth has survived and how important it is to a cultural identity.
All fairy tales are magic tales; all magic tales are fairy tales.
Which of the following are true? Select all correct answers and no incorrect answers.
-Raven is a traditional creation or porquoi tale.
-Raven is a multicultural illustrated or picture book.
Settings in folk literature are
often generic and vague.
The term "epic" refers to
a literary style
Mythologists distinguish between stories that are "mythic" and those that are "myths." What criterion do they use to classify a story as "mythic" vs. "myth"?
How well the story is written.
Stories about Paul Bunyan are what kind of traditional literature?
tall tales.
Which author is traditionally credited as the author of many fables?
What does "redaction" mean?
A piece of children's literature that teaches numerical skills.
The early mythologist who wrote The Golden Bough is
James. G. Frazer
Raven is a traditional tale from which area and/or culture?
The Pacific Northwest
Myths and mythic tales
largely a product of 16th and 17th century Europe
Which of the following are essential or main features of a traditional epic? Select all that apply and none that do not (i.e., you will lose points for an incorrect answer).
- using an epic battle which benefits a social unit of a clan/tribe or larger.
- written in "the grand style"
-has a hero who is in some way "larger than life"
The Little Engine that Could
subtly stereotypes men as self-important.
True or false?
The essential feature of myths is that they are untrue, made-up.
Which of the following is Raven's (the character, not the book) goal?
To make the sun shine for all people.
"Pourquoi" myths and folktales
provide an explanation of some feature in the natural world.
For a work of modern fantasy to be considered of high quality it MUST have the following trait:
consistency in its unrealistic elements
Which of the following are criteria for evaluating fantasy? Select all that apply and none that do not.
-success in getting readers to suspend disbelief
-how consistent the fantasy elements are with each other (i.e., a fantasy world as opposed to random unrealistic bits)
-how significant to the story the fantasy elements are
What does "suspension of disbelief" mean in terms of literature?
imagining, while reading a book, that its events, characters, settings, etc. are true even when you know that they are fictional.
What does "didactic" or "didactism" mean?
Teaching directly rather than teaching indirectly through example, play, or entertainment
What problem is there in having children read Gulliver's Travels (the real book, not a children's version)?
Its fantasy elements make sense only as political satire on 18th century England
Which of the following definitions are true of fantasy literature?
Stories with one or more significant element(s) that is (are) inconsistent with reality.
When we determine whether or not a work is science fiction, on which principles of basic science do we judge the work?
Generally known scientific knowledge or understanding at the time the work was written.
Any element of fantasy in a work classifies that work as fantasy literature. True or false.
How did/does Plato's theories of the ideal plane of concepts apply to literature?
Plato thought that ideal concepts were reality (e.g., a real table is the concept of tableness, not a physically-existing table), with physical versions as imperfect imitations of reality, and literature as merely an imitation of an imitation.
What is an allegory?
An allegory is a story that makes sense as a story from its surface meaning but that also and more importantly means something different than its "surface meaning."
A good example of animal fantasy is
The Tales of Peter Rabbit and Benjamin Bunny.
The "language" used for spells in the Harry Potter series is
based on and intended to be recognizable as Latin.
One type of modern fantasy appropriate for children as young as 4 is . . .
personified toys/objects
Which of the following books is an example of "The Christmas Trade" in the 1950s and early 1960s?
Podkayne of Mars.
Science Fiction must be set in the future. True or false?
Fantasy is exclusively part of children's literature: it is suitable for children and not something adults can be interested in. True or false?
The work of children's literature often called the best-known and best-loved U.S. work of fantasy is
Charlotte's Web by E. B. White
Which classic theme does Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone use in its characterization of Harry?
undervalued orphan child who is much better than his/her relatives
Which work of Children's Fantasy won both the Hugo and Nebula Science Fiction awards in the same year?
Ender's Game
Which of the following combination is true? Select the best answer.
Podkayne of Mars is heroic fantasy generally seen as appropriate for children aged 8 and up.
The Lion, the Witch, and The Wardrobe is science fiction generally seen as appropriate for young adults.

J. K. Rowling's use of the theme of "under-valued orphan child who is really much better than her/his relatives" is entirely original to Rowling.
What well-known author of books for older children and teens (and adults) has lived most of her life in Oregon?
Ursula LeGuin
Charlotte's Web was written by
E. B. White
Which of the following illustrate the claim that Heinlein was a misogynist? Select all that apply.
-The complications in the plot result from Podkayne not following orders.
-Heinlein portrays all the elderly widows as spiteful hags.
-Heinlein has a main character identify that the problems with the children result from their mother continuing to work and her husband letting her do so.
Science Fantasy stories have as a REQUIRED feature
a blend of science elements and traditional fantasy elements.
What term do literary theorists use to get around the problem of distinguishing precisely between what is possible vs. what is improbable?
suspension of disbelief
the realm of possibility
Which of the following are possible examples of something "inconsistent with basic reality" that categorize a work as belonging to the broad meaning of "fantasy" (as opposed to elements necessary for just pure fantasy or just science fiction)? Select ALL that apply.
-A combination of improbable elements that together are unrealistic
-One or more significant element(s) in characterization, plot, and/or setting that is unrealistic in terms of either our current understanding of what is "real" or the understanding of what is "real" when the book was written.
Which of the following works was published as part of "The Christmas Trade"?
Podkayne of Mars
People who read The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe as Christian allegory understand which character as a "Christ-figure"?
Aslan, the lion
The "spells" in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone are based on what language?
According to Heinlein, why did Podkayne and Clark not behave as children were supposed to? Select the best answer.
They were raised in poverty and had been taught to steal when they were very young.
Written in 1962 by Madeleine L'Engle, this book has been the subject of controversy and censorship:
A Wrinkle in Time
Why / how is the 5th century B.C.E. philosopher, Plato, relevant to children's literature?
His theories condemning anything unrealistic influenced later writers against writing anything intended primarily to entertain and against most fantasy.
C.S. Lewis proposed what more or less revolutionary idea about children's literature?
Children's literature must, first, be literature.
A novel set in medieval England in which a young peasant boy goes on a quest to become a dragonknight is best classified, from the options below, as. . .
heroic fantasy
What is a basic definition of fantasy as a sub-category of Fantasy (i.e., pure fantasy vs. science fiction)?
Pure fantasy must include one or more significant element(s) in one or more of characterization, plot, and/or setting inconsistent with basic science.
Which of the following types of fantasy literature are suitable as children's literature?
Fantastic events, characters, and/or settings to promote imagination or delight.
The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe was originally intended as the first book in a chronological series. True or false?
What events help establish Ender's "person-against-self" conflicts? Select the BEST answer.
Ender's attempt to smuggle a nuclear device about the space ship.
Realistic fiction about animals can have animals "talking" to each other and/or to humans, provided what they say realistically conveys what that type of animal would be likely to say if they could talk in real life.
Realistic fiction needs enough features of every day events to be believable but not so many as to make the plot drag or damage a work's focus. For example, in stories aimed at adults, convenient parking spaces are always available and characters usually have something to write on and with if they need to remember a telephone number. For children's literature, which real elements are the first to go?
Details of every day life that do not contribute to plot, characterization or basic connections between events.
Which of the following BEST describes the realism in Hoot?
It uses all of the main types of realism: situational, emotional, social, and contemporary.
Which of the following is TRUE of realistic fiction for children?
Realistic fiction must use ordinary, true-to-life facts and details.
Which TWO of the following types of realism apply to realistic fiction?
- emotional realism
-social realism
Which of the following combination of category of realistic fiction is often used in multicultural literature?
Family and Community
Works of Contemporary Realism are the most likely modern children's books to be censored or banned in school libraries
Which of the following best describes emotional realism?
The appearance of believable feelings and relationships among characters
What is an advantage of having one or two improbable elements in a realistic fiction story?
To reduce chances of rare instances where children get hurt attempting things that they thought were real in a story rather than realistic
Which of the following best describes social realism?
Works containing social realism provides insight into a particular social culture, such as social classes or particular social groups.
The author of Hoot also writes controversial newspaper columns, strictly intended for adults. True or false?
What does "contemporary realism" mean?
Stories based on the perspective that children's literature should deal with unpleasant as well as pleasant realities that children may experience.
The novel Hoot is set
Daytona Beach, Florida
Coconut Cove, Louisiana
Coconut Cove, California
Categories of realistic fiction include all of the following EXCEPT
quest stories
Select all the answers that apply and none that do not. Survival stories
-should not spell out a moral by having a discussion at the end with a wise, older person talking to the child character about the importance of not doing whatever the child did to get into the situation that threatened survival.
-are best when they are based on true stories and/or when they show realistic survival skills.
How does Roy, in Hoot, prove to his father that Dana had tried to strangle him?
He shows his father the bruises on his throat
Which of the following best describes situational realism?
A likely story, often in an identifiable location, with characters of a particular age and social class.
How do Roy, Beatrice, and Mullet Fingers finally stop the construction of the "Mother Paula's" pancake restaurant?
They track down the original Environmental Impact paper work that denied the Mother Paula's company the right to build on that site because it was home to an endangered species.
Which of the following best describes "coming of age" realistic fiction?
They show the main characters becoming more independent.
The most popular category in realistic fiction, based on reader-preference surveys, is
Which of the following categories apply to Hoot? Select all that apply and none that do not.
-Family and Community
-Moral Choices
The key part of the definition of "realistic fiction" is
that it must recognizably and consistently convey the impression of "real life."
Which of the following is true of children's realistic fiction?
It needs at least a possibility for optimism and usually should propose, if not a solution, at least some possible amelioration.
Events in realistic fiction novels MUST be
believable, possible, but not necessarily probable
Select all the answers that apply and none that do not. Survival stories
-should not spell out a moral by having a discussion at the end with a wise, older person talking to the child character about the importance of not doing whatever the child did to get into the situation that threatened survival.
-are best when they are based on true stories and/or when they show realistic survival skills.
What is Mullet Fingers trying to save?
Burrowing owls
Select all the answers that apply and none that do not. Survival stories
- should not spell out a moral by having a discussion at the end with a wise, older person talking to the child character about the importance of not doing whatever the child did to get into the situation that threatened survival.
-are best when they are based on true stories and/or when they show realistic survival skills.
Select all the answers that apply and none that do not. Survival stories
-should not spell out a moral by having a discussion at the end with a wise, older person talking to the child character about the importance of not doing whatever the child did to get into the situation that threatened survival.

- are best when they are based on true stories and/or when they show realistic survival skills
Historical Fiction must convey a sense of the historical period in which it is set and of the people who lived at that time.
Johnny Tremain starts out in
Boston, 1773
What is wrong with the expectation that children who read inaccurate or incomplete historical elements in children's historical fiction stories will later learn the correct history?
Accurate historical information isn't available to anyone who doesn't have a graduate degree in history.
Nothing is wrong with this idea--children and adults DO regularly seek out historical information to confirm, modify, or replace historical elements in children's historical fiction.
Nothing is wrong with this idea--historical fiction for children IS historically accurate.
Any historical subject, event, or person is suitable for children's historical fiction as long as problematic details are replaced with pleasant details and problematic perspectives or viewpoints are replaced with current views. For example, a biography of Hitler should focus on his love of dogs and his painting.
Which of the following are main differences between historical fiction for children and historical fiction for adults?
- the presence or absence of sexual content
- the vocabulary level
- the presence or absence of unpleasant details in the list of historical figures
-the length (historical fiction for adults is often well over 400 pages)
Historical fiction set before the 1700s
may be less accurate than other historical fiction due to our lack of specific information about early history.
Historical fiction must be historically accurate in terms of all the characters, all the plot, and all the setting details. True or false?
Which of the following age range is the publisher's recommendation for Johnny Tremain?
10 - 13
Dialog in works of historical fiction for significant historical figures
should be limited to materials recorded in speeches and letters.
As long as the historical framework and important historical figures are accurate, historical fiction may include subtle fantasy elements, such as an elderly adviser who is recognizable as Merlin, or a mysterious and very helpful woman who is recognizably a "fairy godmother."
Good quality historical fiction stories will
meet the same criteria as any other kind of realistic fiction.
Historical fiction is characterized by
realistic, authentic historical settings
What about Esther Forbes, the author of Johnny Tremain, suggests the content will be reasonably accurate?
Just before publishing Johnny Tremain she published a Pulitzer Prize winning non-fiction work on a related subject.
Including dialect in historical fiction
is suitable for historical fiction aimed at older children.
Historical fiction for children that includes fictional elements or that is based on outdated information may have several problems. Which two of the potential problems listed below are most significant?.
-Accepted historical "facts" at one point in time might later be disproved as new documents are discovered, creating a conflict between the historical elements in a children's story book and those same elements in a modern history book.
-Children who read historical fiction may not know or remember which parts are historical and which parts are fictional.
When evaluating historical fiction, one should consider all of the following EXCEPT
realistic plot development
effective characterization consistent with beliefs and views of the represented historical period.


accuracy of historical detail.

Which of the following are typical problems in accuracy in children's historical fiction?
-Children's historical fiction can include factual error based on inadequate research.
-Children's historical fiction can simplify complex social and political issues and events to the point of factual distortion.
-Children's historical fiction about historical figures may simplify and omit so much of that person's life in order to make the biography suitable for children that the biography is dangerously inaccurate.
Which of the following elements of Johnny Tremain is NOT historically accurate?
the main character.
A story set in 15th century France about a little peasant girl who grows up to be a doctor is
historical fantasy
Faction, in terms of a type of literature, describes
historical fiction with actual photographs from the period.
the factual elements in historical fiction.
especially accurate historical fiction.
The essential difference between realistic fiction in general and historical fiction is
the implication of truth and accuracy
How old is Johnny Tremain?
Why does Johnny Tremain stop being an apprentice silversmith?
His hand is injured by melted silver and allowed to heal so that his thumb is attached to the palm of his hand.
Divisions of children's literature into historical periods is the same as for general divisions of European and North American history.
Although exceptions exist, historical fiction is typically intended for
children and young adults from 10 - 18.
The most problematic historical fiction
provides fictional childhoods for important historical figures.
Works that are contemporary fiction when they were written become historical fiction as soon as the setting is far enough in the past that significant elements have changed. True or False?
In historical fiction
some elements must be historically accurate
Johnny Tremain leads up to and includes what two important historical battles?
Lexington and Concord