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Blood Vessels and Circulation
Terms in this set (51)
Pathway of Blood Flow through the Cardiovascular System
Heart -->Arteries -->Arterioles -->Capillaries --> Venules --> Veins --> Heart again
3 Types of Blood Vessels
Arteries, Capillaries, Veins
Brings blood away fro the heart
Transports blood from the arteries to the veins and where fluids, gasses, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and body tissues by diffusion. It consists of endothelium and is a little larger than the size of a red blood cell.
2 Types of Capillaries
Continuous Capillaries and Fenestrated Capillaries
Capillaries that have tight junctions and are blood brain barriers
A type of intercellular junction in cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
Capillaries that have small slits to allow solutes but very few proteins to pass through.
Blood vessels, also called capitance vessels, that carry blood back to the heart, and have about 50% (half) of the bodies blood in it's veins
A tiny vein that controls blood pressure in veins.
Characteristics of veins
1. Veins have lower venules that control blood pressure in the veins.
2. Veins have lower blood pressure than arteries because they are further from the heart.
3. Veins have very thin walls, are very elastic, and contain one-way valves that prevent blood backfill.
General Anatomy of the Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels go from superficial to deep in 3 layers--Tunica Externa, Tunica Media, and Tunica Interna.
The outer layer of the blood vessel
The middle layer of the blood vessel that contains smooth muscle to maintain the muscle tone of the vessel.
The interbal layer of the blood vessel that is lined with endothelium and faces the lumen.
The amount of blood flowing through a blood vessel, tissue, or organ in a given period time.
The flow of blood through the vessels. The pressure/rate is the rate per given volume or mass of tissue (mL/min/g).
2 Factors that Affect Blood Flow
Blood Pressure and Resistance
Blood Pressure (BP)
The ratio of systolic and diastolic pressure (Systolic/Diastolic)
Measurement of the peak/highest arterial blood pressure (BP). Pressure is needed to overcome the arterial resistance (backpressure) at this point.
Diastolic/ Ventrical Filling Pressure
The minimal arterial blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the hearts venticles are relaxing. This is also known as the ventrical filling pressure, the pressure the pressure in the arteries when the ventricle has stopped filling. The higher the pressure, the shorter the filling time, which results in a smaller end diastolic volume.
Systolic - Diastolic; this is the measure of the stress exerted on the small arteries from the contraction of the heart
Disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
Low Blood pressure; when the systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is below 60 mm Hg. This results in dysfunction.
When the vessels resist the blood.
3 Factors that Affect Blood Vessel Resistance
1. Blood Viscosity
2. Vessel Length
3. Vessel Radius (Diameter)
Thickness of the blood
The length of the vessel
Has the most impact on resistance in blood vessels, especially when it either vasodilates or vasoconstricts.
3 Types of Regulation of Blood Flow
1. Local Control
2. Neural Control
3. Hormonal Control
Local Control (Regulation of Blood Flow)
Autoregulation; the tissues regulate their own blood supply. This type of control has toxic byproducts, vasoactive chemicals, and angiogenesis.
Because of the lack of oxygen in these products, they stimulate vasodilation of blood vessels.
Widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow
Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
Chemicals that are secreted by local cells in the blood or endothelium to cause dialation/vasomotion
Adjusting radius of blood vessels
The growth of new vessels as a result of the closing/death of a vessel.
Neural Control (Regulation of Blood Flow)
Regulation of blow from the brain and receptors
The vasomotor center in the brain that receives electrical signals from receptors.
This relates to the nerves and muscles that cause the blood vessels to constrict or dilate.
Baroreceptors in the brain that respond to the stretch of a vessel with negative feedback, lowering of the BP.
Chemoreceptors in the brain that respond to pH, 02, and CO2, adjusting respiration and PH.
The state of not having enough blood flow.
When the brain responds to insufficient blood perfusion to the brain, causing a rise in heart rate (HR)
Stands for Heart Rate
Hormornal Control (Regulation of Blood Flow)
The regulation of blood flow with hormones
3 Types of Hormones that Control Blood Flow
1. Angiotension II Hormone
2. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
3. Atrial Natiueretic Factor
Hormone that increases blood pressure
Hormone that increases heart and constricts blood vessels
Angiotenson II Hormone
A chemical made by the lungs that raises the BP.
Angiogensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
Suppresses Angiotensin II production toe LOWER the blood pressure (BP)
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Laboratory Manual for Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Terry R. Martin
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
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