Which of these is these is the most accurate definition of psychology today?
Science of behavior and mental processes
You are faced with a choice between two hypothetical explanations of an event. Theory A is straightforward and brief; Theory B is complex and lengthy. If you sect Theory A, you are using the law of
You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of this discussion?
Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur, without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
Which correlation coefficients is presented from the highest in magnitude to the lowest in magnitude?
A) +1.00, .00, -1.00
B) +1.00, -.08, +.70
C) +.75, +.50, -.75
D) -.80, -.50, +.32
-0.80, -0.50, +0.32
Which example represents a POSITIVE correlation?
A) The higher your weight, the lower your GPA
B) If you take more vitamin C, you are less likely to catch a cold
C) The more days you miss class, the more points you lose
D) The more hours of sunshine, the fewer inches of rain
The more days you miss class, the more points you will lose
Which example represents a NEGATIVE correlation?
A) The larger your car engine, the lower your gas mileage
B) The higher the outside temperature, the higher your air conditioning bill
C) The higher your SAT score, the higher your GPA
D) The more days you are present in class, the higher your grades
The larger y our car engine, the lower your gas mileage
A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?
What is the change in behavior that researchers measure when they conduct an experiment?
What do we call the variable an experimenter manipulates in order to determine its effects in an experiment?
After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientists thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term describes the scientist's' idea?
What is a REPRESENTATIVE sample?
A sample selected to reflect the characteristics of a population of interest
Two groups of volunteers are involved in an experiment to test the effects of a new drug for treating insomnia. One group of participants is given the drug; the other group is given a pill that contains no medication but looks exactly like the one that contains the drug. What term is used to designate the participants who were given the "false" pill?
A researcher manipulates amount of alcohol and level of background noise while presenting pictures to a group of research participants. Later, she tests the participants' memory for the picture. How many independent and dependent variable are in this experiment?
To independent variable and one dependent variable
Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables, such as age, that could also influence one's ability to recall theses events, age could be considered a(n)
A research psychologist reading phrases such as "respecting individuals' rights to privacy and confidentiality" and "participants must be protected from physical and psychological harm" is reading about ____ guidelines in conducting research
Research participants are entitled to know and agree to the nature of research and the requirement of participation according to the concept of
What was Wilhelm Wundt's major contribution to the discipline of psychology?
He founded the first psychological laboratory
Who was an early proponent of functionalism with a special interest in the stream of consciousness?
Which type of early psychologist believed that "The whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
You attend a lecture by a psychologist who suggests that people have many choices, which cannot be understood by studying animals or maladjusted person. Which psychological perspective is consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
What change occurs as you pass through Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 of sleep?
Sleep becomes progressively deeper
IF the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles and K complexes you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep?
For several months, Ted has been taking increasingly larger doses of sleeping pills to treat insomnia. He just decided to quit taking any sleeping pills. What is likely to happen to Ted when he stops taking the sleeping pills?
He will experience the REM rebound
Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground.Your friend probably suffers from
Jim is 56 years old, slightly overweight, with elevated blood pressure. His wife reports that he snores loudly . What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim's symptoms?
How many infants die each year in the U.S. as a result of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?
Suppose a newly developed test yields information about the ability of acetylcholine to bind to neurons in the medulla. This information might be used to identify the individuals whoa re at elevated risk for which sleep disorder?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
According to Sigmund Freud, The important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the
A client tells his therapist about a dream of driving his spouse to the airport where she boards a plane. The content of the dream related by the client is what Sigmund Freud called its
A social interaction in which one person responds to suggestions offered by another person for experiences involving alterations in perception, memory, and voluntary action defines
"A voluntary system" is a description of the ___ nervous system; "an involuntary system" is a description of the ___ nervous system
While you were driving down a busy street, a child ran in front of your car. You slammed on the brakes and managed to avoid hitting him. Now your heart is racing, you are perspiring, and your stomach is doing "flip-flops" Which component of the nervous system controls these reactions?
You are studying alone in your room late at night when you hear a loud noise downstairs. Your heart beat has increased significantly and your breathing is deeper. You wander if a burglar has entered the house so you decide to investigate. when you cautiously walk downstairs you discover your cat has knocked over a plant stand. Your body begins to relax. and return to normal. Which part of your nervous system is responsible for returning you to a normal state?
Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
Dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons
What are the short, branchlike structures of a neuron that receive signals fom receptors or other neurons?
What is the process by which neurotransmitters reenter terminal buttons and are repackaged for future use in the terminal buttons?
What chemicals stored in terminal buttons allow transmission of nerve impulses between neurons?
Compared to axons without myelin sheaths, what is the speed o action potentials through axons with a myelin sheath?
Faster because ion exchange occurs only at the nodes of Ranvier
Which research methods was used to study the effects of the brain damage experienced by Phineas Gage?
A young man was referred to a neurosurgeon after his frequent bouts of aggression could not be explained or controlled. Sophisticated diagnostic tests found an inoperable tumor. What is the likely location of the tumor?
Warren is having trouble deciding what he wants to eat for breakfast. Which lobes of this brain are especially active as he makes his selection?
A neurologist examines a patient who cannot see despite any evidence of damage to the eye. The neurologist suspects the patient has brain damage. Which part of the brain would the neurologist hypothesize as the location of the damage?
Which term describes a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience?
What must be paired together for classical conditioning to occur?
Neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
When Bart opens the closet door to get some dog food, his dog tarts salivating. What is the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in this example?
Which component of classical conditioning automatically produces a reaction?
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
When Ivan Pavlov presented meat powder, the dog salivated. The meat powder was the ____ and salivation was the _____.
Beth received a painful shock while typing at her computer and now she reacts with fear whenever she sees a computer. What is the computer in this example?
Which of these illustrates an unconditioned response (UCR)?
Salivation when you taste a thick, juicy steak
Your instructor pops a balloon in class and everyone jumps. What is the unconditioned stimulus?
As a demonstration, your instructor pops a balloon and everyone jumps. What is the UCR in this example?
The jump or startle you make to the pop
Repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) leads to
Mary was bitten by a dog. Now she fears the dog that bit her as well as other dogs. What aspect of classical conditioning is illustrated in what happened to Mary?
A dog is conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell. Then the bell is presented alone until the dog no longer salivates to it. A few days later, the dog again salivates to tee bell. The second sentence represents
Your dog jumps on you every times you get a dish out of the kitchen cabinet to feed him. You train your dog to eat only out of a square dish so that he quits jumping on you when you get out other dishes. Your dog's new behavior illustrates
Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced
A positive reinforcer is a stimulus that is ___ and thus ___ the probability of a response.
What is an event or stimulus that makes the behavior it follows more likely to occur in the future?
A grandmother givers her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?
Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?
Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer
A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ____ and thus ___ the probability of a response.
A primary reinforcer is a stimulus that is reinforcing due to ____; a secondary reinforcer is a stimulus that is reinforcing due to ______.
Innate properties; learning
Elizabeth was given a $1000 raise after her last performance evaluation. Her raise is a
What is the name of the schedules of reinforcement in which you receive a reinforcer only sometimes when you make a response?
Which schedule of reinforcement is likely to lead to a scalloped look on the cumulative record, illustrating low rates of response followed by higher rates of response?
You have a class in which you have pop quizzes so that you never know when a quiz will be given. Your studying for the quizzes in reinforced on what type of a schedule?
Al must build 25 radios before he receive $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
Which order of partial reinforcements is the one listed in order of strength (least to most)?
Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
After receptor cells are stimulated, information is transmitted to the brain, which interprets the information. This process of interpretation is called
What is the process in which receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus?
According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, three different types of cones supposedly respond to
Blue, green, red
Amy's school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy's perceptual abilities?
She does not see color
For nearly a century, it was generally agreed that there are four primary tastes. What are they?
Bitter, salty, sour sweet
You walk into class and find the following words on the board: mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nocioreceptors. Based on these words, what will you conclude was the topic of the lecture?
If a team of researchers is interested in the functioning of nocioreceptors, what is the focus of their research efforts?
Sensation of pain
A dinner plate looks circular when viewed from directly above. Viewed from an angle, the same plate looks elliptical. We know the plate remains circular thanks to
Your friend walks away from you on campus. Despite the fact that the retinal image of your friend _____, your perception of the friend does not change, thanks to _____
Shrinks, size constancy
Don can tell Ray about his sports car because Ray understands common characteristics of "sports cars" and what makes them different from "family cars" Thus Ray is using mental categories called
Which of these is the most likely prototype for the concept vehicle?
Most college students in the U.S. probably think of football or basketball when "sports" are mentioned, rather than soccer or luge. Thus football and basketball would serve as ______ for sports.
What problem solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
What problem-solving roadblock have you overcome if you use your shoe to hammer a nail into the wall?
Committing to one hypothesis without adequately testing other possibilities is called
The Dean of University Medical School believes it is important for all physicians to understand how to interact and speak with patients. Therefore, she has invited a cognitive psychologist to discuss the touchy issue of how to present treatment risks and dangers to patients. Which topic is likely to be discussed?
A young child says "Mommy go," signifying that he mother is going to the store. What does this example illustrate about language development?
The ability to excel in a number of tasks, especially those related to success in schoolwork, is a common American definition of
What score indicates how one individual compares to others on a intelligence test?
When you divide a child's mental age by his/her chronological age and multiply by 100, you have computed an
When you took your college entrance exam, students across the country took the same test at the same time with the same instructions. What characteristic of a good psychological test do these similarities reflect?
Sara is having difficulty listening and speaking at school. A pediatrician determines that Sara's eyes and ears are functioning normally. A school psychologist is asked to assess Sara and to plan a course of corrective action. If the psychologist found that Sara is not mental retarded, what is the most likely designation?
If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
Rod needs to decide what to wear on his date tonight. Although he doesn't care if he makes the perfect choice, he doesn't want to be subject to the "fashion police" either. He is running late, so he has to make the selection quickly, and there are lots of clothes in his closet. Which problem solving strategy might be useful in this situation?
What branch of psychology is Jose studying if he is concerned with how people make decisions and communicate their thoughts?
Sheila is introverted and prefers to stay home with a good book rather than go to a festive party. Assume that secretaries are ten times more numerous than librarians. What would an individual whose decision making is guided by the representativeness heuristic conclude about Sheila?
She is a librarian