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Psych Final

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Which of these is these is the most accurate definition of psychology today?
Science of behavior and mental processes
You are faced with a choice between two hypothetical explanations of an event. Theory A is straightforward and brief; Theory B is complex and lengthy. If you sect Theory A, you are using the law of
Parsimony
You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of this discussion?
Case Study
Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur, without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
Naturalistic Observation
Which correlation coefficients is presented from the highest in magnitude to the lowest in magnitude?
A) +1.00, .00, -1.00
B) +1.00, -.08, +.70
C) +.75, +.50, -.75
D) -.80, -.50, +.32
-0.80, -0.50, +0.32
Which example represents a POSITIVE correlation?
A) The higher your weight, the lower your GPA
B) If you take more vitamin C, you are less likely to catch a cold
C) The more days you miss class, the more points you lose
D) The more hours of sunshine, the fewer inches of rain
The more days you miss class, the more points you will lose
Which example represents a NEGATIVE correlation?
A) The larger your car engine, the lower your gas mileage
B) The higher the outside temperature, the higher your air conditioning bill
C) The higher your SAT score, the higher your GPA
D) The more days you are present in class, the higher your grades
The larger y our car engine, the lower your gas mileage
A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?
Survey
What is the change in behavior that researchers measure when they conduct an experiment?
Dependent variable
What do we call the variable an experimenter manipulates in order to determine its effects in an experiment?
Independent variable
After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientists thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term describes the scientist's' idea?
Hypothesis
Which survey technique can provide cause-and-effect answers?
Experiment
What is a REPRESENTATIVE sample?
A sample selected to reflect the characteristics of a population of interest
Two groups of volunteers are involved in an experiment to test the effects of a new drug for treating insomnia. One group of participants is given the drug; the other group is given a pill that contains no medication but looks exactly like the one that contains the drug. What term is used to designate the participants who were given the "false" pill?
Control Group
A researcher manipulates amount of alcohol and level of background noise while presenting pictures to a group of research participants. Later, she tests the participants' memory for the picture. How many independent and dependent variable are in this experiment?
To independent variable and one dependent variable
Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables, such as age, that could also influence one's ability to recall theses events, age could be considered a(n)
Extraneous variable
A research psychologist reading phrases such as "respecting individuals' rights to privacy and confidentiality" and "participants must be protected from physical and psychological harm" is reading about ____ guidelines in conducting research
Ethical
Research participants are entitled to know and agree to the nature of research and the requirement of participation according to the concept of
Informed consent
What was Wilhelm Wundt's major contribution to the discipline of psychology?
He founded the first psychological laboratory
Who was an early proponent of functionalism with a special interest in the stream of consciousness?
William James
Which type of early psychologist believed that "The whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
Gestalt
John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of
Behavior
What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding behavior??
Unconscious mind
You attend a lecture by a psychologist who suggests that people have many choices, which cannot be understood by studying animals or maladjusted person. Which psychological perspective is consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
Humanistic
What term designates our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts?
Consciousness
What do we call biological changes that occur on a daily schedule?
Circadian rhythms
REM sleep refers to
Sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly
What term do sleep researchers use to designate Stage 1 - 4 of sleep?
NREM sleep
What change occurs as you pass through Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 of sleep?
Sleep becomes progressively deeper
IF the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles and K complexes you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep?
Stage 2
What is the typical sequence of sleep stages throughout the night?
NREM - REM - NREM - REM
How long is a typical adult sleep cycle?
90-100 minutes
Which of these is the best description of REM sleep?
Sleep with a high probability of dreaming
If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from
Insomnia
For several months, Ted has been taking increasingly larger doses of sleeping pills to treat insomnia. He just decided to quit taking any sleeping pills. What is likely to happen to Ted when he stops taking the sleeping pills?
He will experience the REM rebound
What is hypersomnia?
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground.Your friend probably suffers from
Narcolepsy
Jim is 56 years old, slightly overweight, with elevated blood pressure. His wife reports that he snores loudly . What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim's symptoms?
Sleep apnea
Which individual is most likely to sleepwalk?
A 10 yr old child
What is enuresis?
Bed wetting
How many infants die each year in the U.S. as a result of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?
3,000
What do we call an intensely frightening experience that occurs during Stage 4 sleep?
Sleep terror
Suppose a newly developed test yields information about the ability of acetylcholine to bind to neurons in the medulla. This information might be used to identify the individuals whoa re at elevated risk for which sleep disorder?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
The "Back to sleep" program has reduced the number of deaths from
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe?
Latent and manifest
According to Sigmund Freud, The important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the
Latent content
A client tells his therapist about a dream of driving his spouse to the airport where she boards a plane. The content of the dream related by the client is what Sigmund Freud called its
Manifest content
Hypnotism was originally known as
Mesmerism
A social interaction in which one person responds to suggestions offered by another person for experiences involving alterations in perception, memory, and voluntary action defines
Hypnosis
What are the two major components of the nervous system?
Central and Peripheral
"A voluntary system" is a description of the ___ nervous system; "an involuntary system" is a description of the ___ nervous system
Somatic; Autonomic
While you were driving down a busy street, a child ran in front of your car. You slammed on the brakes and managed to avoid hitting him. Now your heart is racing, you are perspiring, and your stomach is doing "flip-flops" Which component of the nervous system controls these reactions?
Sympathetic
You are studying alone in your room late at night when you hear a loud noise downstairs. Your heart beat has increased significantly and your breathing is deeper. You wander if a burglar has entered the house so you decide to investigate. when you cautiously walk downstairs you discover your cat has knocked over a plant stand. Your body begins to relax. and return to normal. Which part of your nervous system is responsible for returning you to a normal state?
Parasympathetic
Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
Dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons
What term is used for the basic cells of the nervous system?
Neurons
What are the short, branchlike structures of a neuron that receive signals fom receptors or other neurons?
Dendrites
Which part of a neuron transmits signals to other neurons and to muscles and glands?
Axon
What term describes the space between two neurons?
Synapse
What do we call the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not firing?
Resting potential
What is the process by which neurotransmitters reenter terminal buttons and are repackaged for future use in the terminal buttons?
Re uptake
What chemicals stored in terminal buttons allow transmission of nerve impulses between neurons?
Neurotransmitters
Compared to axons without myelin sheaths, what is the speed o action potentials through axons with a myelin sheath?
Faster because ion exchange occurs only at the nodes of Ranvier
Which research methods was used to study the effects of the brain damage experienced by Phineas Gage?
Case study
How much of the blood flow that leaves the heart goes to the brain?
15-20%
The medulla, pons, and the cerebellum are parts of the
Hind brain
What fibers connect the two hemispheres of the brain?
Corpus Callosum
What is the main function of the reticular formation?
To control levels of alertness
A young man was referred to a neurosurgeon after his frequent bouts of aggression could not be explained or controlled. Sophisticated diagnostic tests found an inoperable tumor. What is the likely location of the tumor?
Amygdala
Warren is having trouble deciding what he wants to eat for breakfast. Which lobes of this brain are especially active as he makes his selection?
Frontal
A neurologist examines a patient who cannot see despite any evidence of damage to the eye. The neurologist suspects the patient has brain damage. Which part of the brain would the neurologist hypothesize as the location of the damage?
Occipital lobes
Who is most closely associated with classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
Which term describes a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience?
Learning
What must be paired together for classical conditioning to occur?
Neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
Which of these illustrates an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?
A puff of ear to your eye
Which of these illustrates an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?
A thick, juicy steak
When Bart opens the closet door to get some dog food, his dog tarts salivating. What is the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in this example?
Dog food
Which component of classical conditioning automatically produces a reaction?
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
When Ivan Pavlov presented meat powder, the dog salivated. The meat powder was the ____ and salivation was the _____.
UCS, UCR
Beth received a painful shock while typing at her computer and now she reacts with fear whenever she sees a computer. What is the computer in this example?
Conditioned stimulus
Which of these illustrates an unconditioned response (UCR)?
Salivation when you taste a thick, juicy steak
Which of these illustrates a conditioned response?
Salivation when you see your favorite restaurant
Your instructor pops a balloon in class and everyone jumps. What is the unconditioned stimulus?
The pop
As a demonstration, your instructor pops a balloon and everyone jumps. What is the UCR in this example?
The jump or startle you make to the pop
Repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) leads to
Extinction
Mary was bitten by a dog. Now she fears the dog that bit her as well as other dogs. What aspect of classical conditioning is illustrated in what happened to Mary?
Generalization
A dog is conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell. Then the bell is presented alone until the dog no longer salivates to it. A few days later, the dog again salivates to tee bell. The second sentence represents
Spontaneous recovery
Your dog jumps on you every times you get a dish out of the kitchen cabinet to feed him. You train your dog to eat only out of a square dish so that he quits jumping on you when you get out other dishes. Your dog's new behavior illustrates
Discrimination
Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced
Taste-aversion learning
Which type of conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning?
Operant
A positive reinforcer is a stimulus that is ___ and thus ___ the probability of a response.
presented; increases
What is an event or stimulus that makes the behavior it follows more likely to occur in the future?
Reinforcer
A grandmother givers her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?
Positive reinforcer
Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?
Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer
A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ____ and thus ___ the probability of a response.
Removed; increases
A primary reinforcer is a stimulus that is reinforcing due to ____; a secondary reinforcer is a stimulus that is reinforcing due to ______.
Innate properties; learning
Elizabeth was given a $1000 raise after her last performance evaluation. Her raise is a
Secondary reinforcer
What is another name for the method of successive approximations?
Shaping
What is the name of the schedules of reinforcement in which you receive a reinforcer only sometimes when you make a response?
Intermittent
Which schedules of reinforcement depend on the number of responses the organism makes?
Ratio
Which schedule of reinforcement is likely to lead to a scalloped look on the cumulative record, illustrating low rates of response followed by higher rates of response?
Fixed-interval
You have a class in which you have pop quizzes so that you never know when a quiz will be given. Your studying for the quizzes in reinforced on what type of a schedule?
Variable-interval
Al must build 25 radios before he receive $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
Fixed-ratio 25
Which schedules of reinforcement are dependent on responses after the passage of time?
Interval
Which order of partial reinforcements is the one listed in order of strength (least to most)?
Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
Activation of receptors by stimuli is called
Sensation
After receptor cells are stimulated, information is transmitted to the brain, which interprets the information. This process of interpretation is called
Perception
What is the process in which receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus?
Adaption
What is the absolute threshold?
Smallest amount of stimulus energy that is detectable
When light waves enter the eye, they first pass through the
Cornea
What is the pupil of the eye?
Small opening in the center of the eye
Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
Retina
Which part of the ye changes shape in order to regulate how much light enters?
Iris
What are the sensory receptors for light?
Cones and rods
According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, three different types of cones supposedly respond to
Blue, green, red
Amy's school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy's perceptual abilities?
She does not see color
What term describes a person who has trouble seeing one of the primary colors?
Dichromat
What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?
Tiny bones located in the middle ear
Conduction deafness refers to hearing problems that originate in the
Outer and middle ear
Central deafness refers to hearing problems that originate in the
Auditory pathways and brain
What is the approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells?
10-14 days
For nearly a century, it was generally agreed that there are four primary tastes. What are they?
Bitter, salty, sour sweet
Approximately how many scents can humans detect?
10,000
Which sense provides information about the body's orientation and movement?
Vestibular
You walk into class and find the following words on the board: mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nocioreceptors. Based on these words, what will you conclude was the topic of the lecture?
Cutaneous senses
If a team of researchers is interested in the functioning of nocioreceptors, what is the focus of their research efforts?
Sensation of pain
A dinner plate looks circular when viewed from directly above. Viewed from an angle, the same plate looks elliptical. We know the plate remains circular thanks to
Shape constancy
Your friend walks away from you on campus. Despite the fact that the retinal image of your friend _____, your perception of the friend does not change, thanks to _____
Shrinks, size constancy
Which of these is a monocular cue?
Texture gradient
Which Gestalt principle helps explain our perception of: WWWWW HHHHHH
Similarity
Which perceptual principle suggests that we are likely to perceive [ ] as a square?
Closure
Don can tell Ray about his sports car because Ray understands common characteristics of "sports cars" and what makes them different from "family cars" Thus Ray is using mental categories called
Concepts
Which of these is the most likely prototype for the concept vehicle?
A) Scooter
B) Glider
C) Bicycle
D) Car
Car
Most college students in the U.S. probably think of football or basketball when "sports" are mentioned, rather than soccer or luge. Thus football and basketball would serve as ______ for sports.
Prototypes
What problem solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
Heuristics
What problem-solving roadblock have you overcome if you use your shoe to hammer a nail into the wall?
Functional fixedness
Committing to one hypothesis without adequately testing other possibilities is called
Confirmation bias
The Dean of University Medical School believes it is important for all physicians to understand how to interact and speak with patients. Therefore, she has invited a cognitive psychologist to discuss the touchy issue of how to present treatment risks and dangers to patients. Which topic is likely to be discussed?
Framing
What is the ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate?
Creativity
What are the basic units of meaning in a language?
Morphemes
How many morphemes are there in the sentence "I predicted it"?
Five
A young child says "Mommy go," signifying that he mother is going to the store. What does this example illustrate about language development?
Telegraphic speech
The ability to excel in a number of tasks, especially those related to success in schoolwork, is a common American definition of
Intelligence
What score indicates how one individual compares to others on a intelligence test?
Intelligence Quotient
When you divide a child's mental age by his/her chronological age and multiply by 100, you have computed an
Intelligence Quotient
Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be
Reliable
A psychological test that measures what we intent it to measure is said to be
Valid
When you took your college entrance exam, students across the country took the same test at the same time with the same instructions. What characteristic of a good psychological test do these similarities reflect?
Standaradization
What is the average intelligence quotient on a typical intelligence test?
100
Sara is having difficulty listening and speaking at school. A pediatrician determines that Sara's eyes and ears are functioning normally. A school psychologist is asked to assess Sara and to plan a course of corrective action. If the psychologist found that Sara is not mental retarded, what is the most likely designation?
Learning disability
Which of these is one of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences?
Naturalistic
If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
Identical twins
Rod needs to decide what to wear on his date tonight. Although he doesn't care if he makes the perfect choice, he doesn't want to be subject to the "fashion police" either. He is running late, so he has to make the selection quickly, and there are lots of clothes in his closet. Which problem solving strategy might be useful in this situation?
Heuristics
What branch of psychology is Jose studying if he is concerned with how people make decisions and communicate their thoughts?
Cognitive psychology
Sheila is introverted and prefers to stay home with a good book rather than go to a festive party. Assume that secretaries are ten times more numerous than librarians. What would an individual whose decision making is guided by the representativeness heuristic conclude about Sheila?
She is a librarian