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Man's Food Lesson 9: Fat
60% carbohydrates. 30% fat, and 10% protein
average American diet
48% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 12% protein
most common form of fat (95% of fat eaten); consists of the molecule glycerol, plus three individual fatty acids and is primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
found primarily in cell membranes; consists of a hydrophilic head and and hydrophobic tails, important b/c of their affinity to water inside the cytoplasm and fluid that surrounds the cells
lipids that contain four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen
best known sterol
cholesterol, part of the cell membrane and essential for making steroid hormones, bile, and vitamin D
three types of lipids or fats found in the human body
triglycerides, sterols, and phospholipids
oil, butter, and marbling in meat
unseen fats contained in foods such as nuts, peanut butter, milk and dressings
every fat contains a combination of
saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats
characterized by a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms
not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap in it where hydrogen atoms are missing; may be liquid or solid at room temperature
fatty acids that have two or more double bonds or areas of unsaturation; behave mostly as a liquid and have a high degree of unsaturation
essential fatty acids must come from your diet because
humans do not have the capability of making double bond systems
a tablespoon of vegetable oil per day is enough to...
give a person the three essential fatty acids
the three essential fatty acids
linoleic, linolenic, and arachadonic
fatty acids are
a "chain" formation of chemicals that be from 2 to 20 plus carbons long; these serve as starter materials to make various hormones or making longer chain fats
Why do cold water marine species exhibit an abundance of unsaturated fat?
Because the arachadonic fatty acid helps marine species survive in sub-freezing temperatures by keeping the cell membranes from solidifying; this allows marine species to live in harsh environments
lack of the essential fatty acids can result in...
severe dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)
fat eating goals
eat mostly unsaturated fats and limit the amount of saturated and trans fats
excellent sources of unsaturated fats and essential fatty acids
walnuts, flaxseeds, peanuts, almonds, soybeans, corn oil, soybean oil, canola oil
a group of compounds found in the body and in our diets that are relatively insoluble in water
energy storage, insulation
biological membranes, transportation of fat in the bloodstream
chemical messengers, cell signaling, modulates the cell membrane's fluidity
fatty acid bending at the double bond
fatty acids straight
functions of fat
provides essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (a, d, e, and k), contributes to the sensory experience of eating food, a protecting agent to absorb shock helping maintain cell intergrity
molecules made up of fat and protein that act as delivery truck when considering the movement of fat in the body
four types of lipoproteins
chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, HDL
lipoprotein delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via the lymphatic system (usually), very high in triglyceride
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)
carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to other cells, shrinks into LDL as deliveries persevere
LDL (low density lipoprotein)
carries cholesterol to the cells, receptors enable clearing of cholesterol from the circulatory system
HDL (high density lipoprotein)
carries fats from cells back to the liver for elimination or recycling
LDL is often called "bad cholesterol" because of...
its implication in the development of heart disease
HDL is called the "good cholesterol" because...
it reduces plaque buildup in the arteries
balance between HDL and LDL...
is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease
attracts water and lipids, and contributes to keeping cell membranes healthy
used primarily for fat storage, one lb is equal to 3500 calories
hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body; occur when fat crystalizes and forms a crystalline structure which causes it to solidify
the disease that results when there are not enough carbohydrates in the diet to completely allow for the oxidation of fat (symptoms: drowsiness and headaches)
blocking of the arteries
serious consequences of atherosclerosis...
block of major artery, heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, ballooning of the artery, gangrene or phlebitis
most important risk factors associated with coronary heart disease
smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol