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ideal diet

60% carbohydrates. 30% fat, and 10% protein

average American diet

48% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 12% protein


most common form of fat (95% of fat eaten); consists of the molecule glycerol, plus three individual fatty acids and is primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen


found primarily in cell membranes; consists of a hydrophilic head and and hydrophobic tails, important b/c of their affinity to water inside the cytoplasm and fluid that surrounds the cells


lipids that contain four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen

best known sterol

cholesterol, part of the cell membrane and essential for making steroid hormones, bile, and vitamin D

three types of lipids or fats found in the human body

triglycerides, sterols, and phospholipids

visible fats

oil, butter, and marbling in meat

invisible fats

unseen fats contained in foods such as nuts, peanut butter, milk and dressings

every fat contains a combination of

saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats

saturated fat

characterized by a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms

monounsaturated fat

not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap in it where hydrogen atoms are missing; may be liquid or solid at room temperature

polyunsaturated fats

fatty acids that have two or more double bonds or areas of unsaturation; behave mostly as a liquid and have a high degree of unsaturation

essential fatty acids must come from your diet because

humans do not have the capability of making double bond systems

a tablespoon of vegetable oil per day is enough to...

give a person the three essential fatty acids

the three essential fatty acids

linoleic, linolenic, and arachadonic

fatty acids are

a "chain" formation of chemicals that be from 2 to 20 plus carbons long; these serve as starter materials to make various hormones or making longer chain fats

Why do cold water marine species exhibit an abundance of unsaturated fat?

Because the arachadonic fatty acid helps marine species survive in sub-freezing temperatures by keeping the cell membranes from solidifying; this allows marine species to live in harsh environments

lack of the essential fatty acids can result in...

severe dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)

fat eating goals

eat mostly unsaturated fats and limit the amount of saturated and trans fats

excellent sources of unsaturated fats and essential fatty acids

walnuts, flaxseeds, peanuts, almonds, soybeans, corn oil, soybean oil, canola oil


a group of compounds found in the body and in our diets that are relatively insoluble in water

triglycerides (function)

energy storage, insulation

phospholipid (function)

biological membranes, transportation of fat in the bloodstream

sterols (function)

chemical messengers, cell signaling, modulates the cell membrane's fluidity


fatty acid bending at the double bond


fatty acids straight

functions of fat

provides essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (a, d, e, and k), contributes to the sensory experience of eating food, a protecting agent to absorb shock helping maintain cell intergrity


molecules made up of fat and protein that act as delivery truck when considering the movement of fat in the body

four types of lipoproteins

chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, HDL


lipoprotein delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via the lymphatic system (usually), very high in triglyceride

VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)

carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to other cells, shrinks into LDL as deliveries persevere

LDL (low density lipoprotein)

carries cholesterol to the cells, receptors enable clearing of cholesterol from the circulatory system

HDL (high density lipoprotein)

carries fats from cells back to the liver for elimination or recycling

LDL is often called "bad cholesterol" because of...

its implication in the development of heart disease

HDL is called the "good cholesterol" because...

it reduces plaque buildup in the arteries

balance between HDL and LDL...

is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease


attracts water and lipids, and contributes to keeping cell membranes healthy

adipose tissue

used primarily for fat storage, one lb is equal to 3500 calories


hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body; occur when fat crystalizes and forms a crystalline structure which causes it to solidify


the disease that results when there are not enough carbohydrates in the diet to completely allow for the oxidation of fat (symptoms: drowsiness and headaches)


blocking of the arteries

serious consequences of atherosclerosis...

block of major artery, heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, ballooning of the artery, gangrene or phlebitis

most important risk factors associated with coronary heart disease

smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol

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