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most common form of fat (95% of fat eaten); consists of the molecule glycerol, plus three individual fatty acids and is primarily made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
found primarily in cell membranes; consists of a hydrophilic head and and hydrophobic tails, important b/c of their affinity to water inside the cytoplasm and fluid that surrounds the cells
best known sterol
cholesterol, part of the cell membrane and essential for making steroid hormones, bile, and vitamin D
not completely saturated by hydrogen, has a gap in it where hydrogen atoms are missing; may be liquid or solid at room temperature
fatty acids that have two or more double bonds or areas of unsaturation; behave mostly as a liquid and have a high degree of unsaturation
essential fatty acids must come from your diet because
humans do not have the capability of making double bond systems
fatty acids are
a "chain" formation of chemicals that be from 2 to 20 plus carbons long; these serve as starter materials to make various hormones or making longer chain fats
Why do cold water marine species exhibit an abundance of unsaturated fat?
Because the arachadonic fatty acid helps marine species survive in sub-freezing temperatures by keeping the cell membranes from solidifying; this allows marine species to live in harsh environments
excellent sources of unsaturated fats and essential fatty acids
walnuts, flaxseeds, peanuts, almonds, soybeans, corn oil, soybean oil, canola oil
a group of compounds found in the body and in our diets that are relatively insoluble in water
functions of fat
provides essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (a, d, e, and k), contributes to the sensory experience of eating food, a protecting agent to absorb shock helping maintain cell intergrity
molecules made up of fat and protein that act as delivery truck when considering the movement of fat in the body
lipoprotein delivers fat from the intestine to the liver via the lymphatic system (usually), very high in triglyceride
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)
carries fat made in the liver and delivers it to other cells, shrinks into LDL as deliveries persevere
LDL (low density lipoprotein)
carries cholesterol to the cells, receptors enable clearing of cholesterol from the circulatory system
HDL (high density lipoprotein)
carries fats from cells back to the liver for elimination or recycling
LDL is often called "bad cholesterol" because of...
its implication in the development of heart disease
hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on the body; occur when fat crystalizes and forms a crystalline structure which causes it to solidify
the disease that results when there are not enough carbohydrates in the diet to completely allow for the oxidation of fat (symptoms: drowsiness and headaches)
serious consequences of atherosclerosis...
block of major artery, heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, ballooning of the artery, gangrene or phlebitis
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