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Ch.3: Water and Life
Terms in this set (42)
Polar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
A molecule with an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the molecule
The linkage together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds
The clinging of substance to another, such as water to plant cell walls by means of hydrogen bonds
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
The energy associated with the relative motion of objects. Moving matter can perform work by imparting motion to other matter
Kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms and molecules; energy in its most random form
A measure in degrees of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter
Thermal energy in transfer form one body of matter to another
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C
A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1C
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1C
Heat of vaporization
The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to its gaseous state.
The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from liquid to gaseous state
A liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
The dissolving agent of a solution.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution
A solution in which water is the solvent
The sphere of water molecules around a dissolved ion
Having an affinity for water ( water loving)
Having no affinity for water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule
The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular or atomic mass in daltons.
A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Hydrogen ion (H+)
A single proton with a charge of 1+. The dissociation of a water molecule leads to the generation of hydroxide ion and a _________ .
Hydroxide Ion (OH-)
A water molecule that has lost a proton, OH-
A water molecule that has a extra proton bound to it; H30+, commonly represented as H+
A substnce that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a soltion
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value 0 to 14
A solution that contains a weak acid and its corresponding base. Minimizes changes in pH when acids or bases are added to the solution
Decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels
why does water have a high surface tension ?
Because of hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
depends on the matters volume.
What is H3O+ represented as
Is a buffer in human blood H2CO3
Properties of Water
1. Cohesion (Insects walk on water,h20 bonding together) , adhesion ( water sticks to body outside shower)
2. High surface tension
3.high specific heat (it takes a lot of heat to increase the temp of water, ex. Swimming pool is cold)
4. heat of vaporization
5. Ice is less dense than water
6.water is the almost universal solvent
the unique Linear sequence of amino acids
Polypeptide is folded into a alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet do to the hydrogen bonds
The overall shape of the polypeptides resulting form interactions between side chains
Overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of polypeptide subunits.
coil held together by hydrogen bonds between every fourth amino acid.
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