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OCR-A H556 Physics Chapter 18 - Gravitational Fields
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Terms in this set (21)
gravitational field
A region in which a mass will experience a gravitational force
gravitational field strength
The force per unit mass placed in the gravitational field
radial gravitational field
A gravitational field produced by a spherical (or point) mass in which the field lines all point towards the centre of mass of the object causing the field
point mass
A idealised mass with zero size. The field outside a spherical mass can be modelled as the field of an equal point mass placed at the centre of mass of the sphere
uniform gravitational field
A region in which the gravitational field strength is constant (field is of constant magnitude and field lines are parallel)
Newton's law of gravitation
The gravitational attraction between two objects is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the sqaure of the distance between their centres of mass
Gravimetry
A method of probing the Earth's structure based on minute variations in gravitational field strength
Kepler's 1st Law
A planet's orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci
Kepler's 2nd Law
A line segment joiing the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time (so the planet must move faster when closer to the Sun)
Kepler's 3rd Law
The square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the average orbital radius (constant of proportionality is fixed for a given solar system)
aphelion
Furthers point from the Sun on a planet's orbital path
perhelion
Closest point to the Sun on a planet's ortbial path
astronomical unit (AU)
The mean distance between the Earth and the Sun (~150 million km)
satellite
An object which orbits planet
gesostationary satellite
A satellite with an orbital period of 24 hours which orbits above the equator in the same direction as the Earth's rotation so its apparent position in the sky remains unchanged
equatorial orbit
Any orbit in which the satellite is always above the planet's equator
low earth orbit
An orbit of altitude of between 160 and 2000 km ( HST and ISS are both in LEO)
polar orbit
Any orbit passing over a planet's rotational poles.
gravitational potential
The work done per unit mass to move an object to a point in the gravitational field from infinity (conventionally 0J/kg at infinity thus potentials are always negative)
gravitational potential energy
The work done to move an object to a point in the gravitational field. (often using the 0J at infinity OR the 0J at ground level convention)
escape velocity
The minimum velocity requred (ignoring resistive forces) for an object launched from the surface of a body to reach infinite distance (thus required KE = - gravitational PE (using 0J at infinity convention)
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Verified questions
PHYSICS
Two optically flat plates of glass are separated at one end by a wire of diameter 0.200 mm; at the other end they touch. Thus, the air gap between the plates has a thickness ranging from 0 to 0.200 mm. The plates are 15.0 cm long and are illuminated from above with light of wavelength 600.0 nm. How many bright fringes are seen in the reflected light?
PHYSICS
The terminal velocity of a person falling in air depends upon the weight and the area of the person facing the fluid. Find the terminal velocity (in meters per second and kilometers per hour) of an 80.0-kg skydiver falling in a pike (headfirst) position with a surface area of 0.140 m².
PHYSICS
Determine the temperature at which the resistance of an aluminum wire will be twice its value at $20.0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}.$ Assume its coefficient of resistivity remains constant.
PHYSICS
A cylindrical bottle, partially filled with water, is open at the top. When you blow across the top of the bottle a standing wave is set up inside it. Is there a node or an antinode (a) at the top of the bottle and, (b) at the surface of the water? (c) If the standing wave is vibrating at its fundamental frequency, what is the distance between the top of the bottle and the surface of the water? Express your answer in terms of the wavelength $\lambda$ of the standing wave. (d) If you take a sip from the bottle, is the fundamental frequency of the standing wave raised, lowered, or does it remain the same?
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