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Biology 2260 Cardiovascular System
Terms in this set (43)
Describe the general functions of blood
transportation, regulation, protection
6 characteristics that describe blood, and explain significance of each to health and homeostasis
Color: oxygenated= BRIGHT red
deoxygenated= DARK red
Plasma concentration: determines whether fluid moves between fluid compartments by osmosis
Temperature: redistributes heat to maintain homeostasis
Volume: about 5 liters in an adult, normal blood volume is essential for maintaining blood pressure
Viscosity: four to five times thicker than water
Blood pH: slightly alkaline, 7.4, another factor is respiratory rate
List the three components of a centrifuged blood sample
Erythrocytes, Buffy Coat, Plasma
Define Hematocrit and explain how the medical definition differs from the clinical usage
Percentage of volume of formed elementsPercentage of only erythrocytes
Would a hematocrit of 39% be considered normal?
Name the three formed elements of the blood and compare their relative abundance.
Erythrocytes 44 percentBuffy Coat less than 1 percentPlasma 55 percent
What are the functions of erythrocytes and leukocytes?
Erythrocytes - - to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes - defend against disease, leave and return to the blood stream<1% of blood volume1 leukocyte to every 1000 erythrocyte
What is the pH of blood and why does it matter?
The pH of blood is 7.35-7.45, important for maintaining physiological homeostasis
Define colloid osmotic pressure
osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins, prevents loss of fluid from blood as it moves thru capillaries, help maintain blood volume and pressure
Would a malnourished person eating inadequate amounts of protein have blood with high or low colloid osmotic pressure?
low colloid osmotic pressure
Identify the 3 primary types of plasma proteins and explain the general function of each
Albumins: transport lipid soluble hormones, from liver, smallest and most abundant, 58 percent of total proteins
Globulins: second largest group, 37 percent of total proteins, smaller alpha and larger beta. transport some water insoluble molecules
Fibrinogen: 4 percent of total proteins (IMPOR.) contributes to blood clotting.
Regulatory Proteins: less than 1 percent of total proteins. Accelerate chemical reactions
What function so Albumins serve?
maintain the greatest colloid osmotic pressure
List dissolved substances in plasma by category
Water- 92 percent
Albumin- 58 percent
Globulins- 37 percent
Fibrinogen- 4 percent
Regulatory proteins- less than 1 percent
Define hemopoiesis and explain the role of colony stimulating factors
Means blood cell formation. They stimulate WBC for growth
Describe the process of erythropoiesis
process of erythrocyte production.
Begins with myeloid stem cell
forms progenitor cell
loses most organelles & produces hemoglobin
Compare the production of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes in leukopoiesis
Granulocytes: Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils.
Monocytes: monocytes in circulation, macrophages in tissue
Lymphocytes: blymph, natural killer and t cells
Summarize the process by which platelets are formed in thrombopoiesis
Megakaryoblast produced from myeloid stem cell
then forms megakaryocyte
then produces thousands of platelets per/sec
Describe the structure of erythrocytes
Small and flexible, lacks nucleus and cellular organelles, have biconcave disc structures
List the events by which erythrocyte production is stimulated
Erythropeoietin (EPO) stimulation
Decreased blood O2 or increased O2 demand
Detected by chemoreceptors in kidney
EPO released and travels to red bone marrow Stimulated myeloid cells to increase production
Explain the process by which erythrocyte components are recycled
Heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, part of bile
Compare and contrast the different blood types and their importance when transfusing blood
A positive and negative, B positive and negative, O positive and negative
Explain the main function of leukocytes
Help defend the body against pathogens
Distinguish between granulocytes and agranulocytes and compare and contrast the various types
Granulocytes: Visible granules seen with light microscope. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Agranulocytes: smaller granules not visible with microscope. Lymphocytes (T,B,NK), monocytes
Explain what is meant by a differential count and how it is clinically useful
Performed when leukocytes elevated to diagnose disease
Explain the structure and function of platelets
Formed by megakaryocytes pinching off part of cytoplasm, cellular fragments without nucleus, blood clotting
Where does hemopoiesis occur?
red bone marrow
How does a reticulocyte differ from a fully mature erythrocyte?
erythrocyte has a nucleus, and a reticulocytes does not
How might an endurance athlete benefit from training at high altitude?
every breath taken at a high altitude delivers less of what working muscles requires
What causes lymphocytosis?
viral infections (eg. mumps, mononucleosis)
What type of leukocyte decrease histamine release when someone takes an antihistamine?
Explain the ABO and Rh blood tying systems
ABO Blood group is based on? 2 antigens, a and b
Which Rh group has antigen? Rh Plus
Which Rh group does not have antigen? Rh minus
Which types of antibodies are found in the plasma of someone with Type B blood ?
Type A blood
Describe vascular spasm, the first phase of hemostasis
vascular spasm, or vasoconstriction, a brief and intense contraction of blood vessels
Name conditions that bring about vascular spasm
Blood vessel is injured,
greater degree depends on the more extensive the vessel and tissue damaged, lasts a few to many minutes
Describe what happens when platelets encounter damage in a blood vessel
Next stage, platelet plug- endothelial wall is smooth and coated with an eicosanoid called prostacyclin
activates a pathway in both platelets and endothelial cells that involves production of cAMP to inhibit platelet activation
Compare and contrast the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway for activating blood clotting
Initiation of coagulation cascade
Two separate pathways to initiate blood clotting
intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
Converge to the common pathway
Common pathway begins with Factor X
initiated by damage to inside of vessel wall
initiated by platelets contacting collagen
takes 3 to 6 minutes
initiated by damage outside of vessel
usually takes about 15 seconds
Describe events in the common pathway
activated by extrinsic or intrinsic pathway
Factor X the first step
Involves activation of thrombin and fibrin
Positive feedback regulation
events continuing until clot is formed
Size of clot limited
Clotting ends as clotting agents run out
Discuss the survival response that occurs when blood loss exceeds 10%
If greater than 10% of blood lost
increased vasoconstriction, heart rate, force of heart contraction
blood redistributed to heart and brain
effective in maintaining blood pressure until 40% of blood lost
Explain the process of clot retraction and fibrinolysis
occurs as clot is forming
actinomyosin, contractile protein within platelets
contracts and squeezes the serum out of developing clot
makes clot smaller
Speeds healing process as damaged tissues are pulled closer together
LAST STEP IN CLOTTING
degradation of fibrin strands by plasmin
begins within 2 days after clot formation
occurs slowly over a number of days as wound is repaired
What role does fibrin play in clot formation?
The polymerized fibrin, together with platelets, forms a hemostatic plug or clot over a wound site.
What is the common step in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade?
Describe the remaining steps of coagulation that result in fibrin formation
(1) vascular spasm (vasoconstriction); (2) platelet plug formation; and (3) coagulation.Vasoconstriction is a reflex in which blood vessels narrow to increase blood pressure.Next, platelet plug formation involves the activation, aggregation, and adherence of platelets into a plug that serves as a barrier against blood flow. Coagulation involves a complex cascade in which a fibrin mesh is cleaved from fibrinogen. Fibrin acts as a "molecular glue" during clot formation, holding the platelet plug together.
How are blood clots broken down?
fibrin or fibrinolysis
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