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156 terms

Bordley Geography Exam Review

This is exam review #1 for Mr. Bordley's World Geography class.
STUDY
PLAY
geography
the study of the world, its people, and the landscapes they create
landscape
all the human and physical features of a place that make it unique
social science
a field that studies people and the relationships among them
region
a part of the world that has one or more common features that distinguish it from surronding areas
map
a flat drawing that shows all or part of the Earth's surface
globe
a spherical, or ball-shaped model of the entire planet
cartography
the science of making maps
tropics
regions close to the equator
glaciers
large areas of slow-moving ice
groundwater
water found below Earth's surface
water vapor
water as an invisible gas in the air
landforms
shapes on the planet's surface
continents
large landmasses
plate tectonics
a theory that suggests that Earth's surface is divided into a dozen or so slow-moving plates, or pieces of the Earth's crust
weathering
the process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces
erosion
the movement of sediment from one location to another
ocean currents
large streams of surface water
doldrums
a belt of calms and light baffling winds north of the equator between the northern and southern trade winds in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
Tropical climate
a climate very close to the equator, warm, humid, lots of rain, lots of rain forest, Amazon, Congo, southern Mexico, Miami
steppes
semidry grasslands or praries
permafrost
permanently frozen layers of soil
Limits on Life
temperature, rainfall, and soil condition; determines where plants and animals can live
humus
decayed plant or animal matter
renewable resource
a resource that Earth replaces naturally
deforestation
the clearing of trees
culture
the set of beliefs, values, and practices that a group of people has in common
culture trait
an activity or behavior in which people often take part
ethnic group
a group of people who share a common culture and ancestry
cultural diversity
the state of having a variety of cultures in the same area
cultral diffusion
the spread of culture traitsfrom one region to another
birth rate
the annual number of births per 1,000 people
death rate
the annual number of deaths per 1,000 people
migration
the process of moving from one place to live in another
Appalachian Mountains
an old, low mountain range located in the eastern US with smooth peaks due to erosion
Rocky Mountains
the newest, highest, and biggest mountain range in North America with jagged peaks
continental divide
an area of high ground that divides the flow of rivers towards opposite ends of a continent
megalopolis
a string of large cities that have grown together
St. Lawrence River
an important river that runs through Canada and links the Great Lakes and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Niagara Falls
a big and important waterfall that the US and Canada shares; between Ontario and New York
pulp
softened wood fibers
Ottawa
the capital of Canada
Washington, DC
the capital of the US
Canadian Shield
a region of rocky uplands, lakes, and swamps that covers about half of Canada
regionalism
the strong connection that people feel towards their region in which they live
maritime
on or near the sea
meteorology
the study of weather and what causes it
weather
the short-term changes in the air for a given place or time
climate
a region's average weather conditions over a long period of time
front
the place where two air masses of different temperature or moisture content meet
precipitation
water that falls to Earth's surface as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
monsoons
seasonal winds that bring either dry or moist air
rain shadow
when one side of a mountain gets a lot of wind and air, making it lush and green, while the other side gets little wind and rain, making it brown and dry
fossil fuels
nonrenewable resources that formed the remains of ancient plants and animals, like oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy
nonrenewable resources
resources that cannot be replaced
topography
the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features
Five Themes of Geography
Place, Location, Movement, Human-Environment Interaction, and Regions
physical geography
the study of the world's physical features; its landforms, bodies of water, climates, soils, and plants
human geography
the study of the world's people, communities, and landscapes
primary industry
an industry that uses natural resources to make money
secondary industry
an industry that uses raw materials to produce or manufacture something new
tertiary industry
an industry that provides services to people and businesses and sells things
quanternary industry
an industry that processes and distributes information
traditional economy
a system in which people grow their own food and make their own goods; buying and bartering is the way to trade
private ownership
property/resources that individuals own/control
supply and demand
an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)
natural resource
any material in nature that people use and value
renewable resources
resources that Earth replaces naturally; examples are solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric power
Equator
an imaginary line that runs around the globe halfway between the North and South Poles
Desert climate
a hot and dry climate with less than 10 inches per year and little vegetation
North Pole
the northernmost point on the Earth
Alfred Wegener
scientist who came up with the theory of continental drift and tectonic plates
prime minister
like the US's president; oversees the Parliament and appoints senators
premier
like the governor of a US state
John F. Kennedy
the 35th US president who served during the Cold War and urged young Americans to serve their country in the 3rd world to help win the Cold War
Marine West Coast climate
a climate with mild summers and cool, rainy winters; cloudy, strong ocean influence, Seattle, London, Vancouver
Mediterranean climate
a climate with dry, sunny, warm summers and mild, wetter winters; vacation-like weather, Rome, Greece, California
Humid Subtropical climate
a climate with hot, humid summers and mild, wetter winters; rain year-round, Washington, DC, New Orleans, Hong Kong, Atlanta
Humid Continental climate
a climate with long, cold winters and short, warm summers; mixed forest, New York City, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Detroit
Highland climate
wide ranges of temperature and precipitation; ranges from forest to tundra; high regions; cenral Asia, western South America
Subarctic climate
long, cold winters and short, warm summers; mostly very cold, little precipitation, most of Canada, most of Russia, most of Alaska
temperate
synonym for moderate, medium, calm, or not extreme
globalization
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade; improved communication+improved transportation
popular culture
culture traits that are well known and widely accepted; basketball, Apple, Facebook
United Nations
an organization of the world's countries that promotes peace and security around the globe (full name)
humanitarian aid
assistance to people in distress
Peace Corps
a civilian organization sponsored by the US government that helps people in 3rd world countries
NGO
an organization that helps people and is not sponsored by the government (initials)
1st world country
a country with a strong economy and a high quality of life
3rd world country
a country with a less productive economy and a lower quality of life
democracy
a form of government in which the people elect leaders and rule by majority
market economy
a system based on private ownership, free trade, and competition; also called capitalism
communism
a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life
command economy
a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
monarchy
a type of government ruled directly by a king, queen, or royal family
dictatorship
a type of government in which a single, powerful ruler has total control
3 T's
trade, travel, transportation
important waterways
Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Mississippi River, Chesapeake Bay, Ohio River, Hudson Strait
big ports in the US and Canada
Miami, Chicago, Baltimore, Boston, New York City, Vancouver, Montreal
imports
goods bought and brought to a country
exports
goods made in a country used to trade with other countries
hydrology
the study of water on Earth
salt water
water with salt
fresh water
water without salt
surface water
water that is found in Earth's streams, rivers, and lakes
flood
when a certain place is overfull with water; often caused by too much precipitation
water cycle
the movement of water from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back; condensation->precipitation->runoff->evaporation
water erosion
when water carves or changes sediment; an example of it is the Grand Canyon
latitude
imaginary lines that measure how north or south of the equator a location is
longitude
imaginary lines that measure how east or west of the Prime Meridian a location is
absolute location
a specific description of a place, usually using latitude and longitude or an address
relative location
a general description of where a place is, usually using directions
parallels
lines of latitude
degrees
the measurement for lines of latitude and longitude
Prime Meridian
an imaginary line that runs through Greenwich, England and is 0° longitude; like the equator for longitude
legend
key to a map
scale
the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it on a map; usually on the legend
solar energy
energy from the sun
rotation
one complete spin of Earth on its axis
revolution
one trip around the Sun (for the Earth)
Earth's tilt
23.5°, the reason we have seasons
rain forests
forests in the tropics that receive a high amount of rain per year and have plants and animals that can withstand its humidity
evergreen forests
forests with tall, Chirstmas-like trees that stays green all year and don't lose their leaves
savannas
areas of tall grasses and scattered trees and shrubs
coniferous forests
forests with trees that grow cones instead of leaves
deciduous forests
forests with trees that lose their leaves
environment
surrondings
ecosystem
a group of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival and the environment in which they live
food chain
what symbolizes who eats who in an ecosystem
habitat
the place where a plant or animal lives
extinct
to die out
crop rotation
rotating crops in a cycle of at least 3 fields so that the nutrients in the soil are not overused
reforestation
planting trees to replace lost forestland
desertification
the spread of desertlike conditions
Grand Banks
a large fishing ground off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrabor
the Heartland
the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, where more than half of Canada's population lives, many French people live there, big cties like Ottawa, Toronto, and Montreal
Great Lakes
a group of five lakes in the Northeast and Midwest; largest group of freshwater lakes in the world
Mississippi River
the longest river in North America, runs through Midwest and South, provides rich minerals for Interior Plains
Interior Plains
a region stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Great Plains, great farmland, farmland caused by Miss. River
population
the total number of people in a given area
population density
a measure of the number of people living in a given area
natural increase
birth rate-death rate
demographics
statistics related to population
assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
containment
what the Americans wanted to do with communism; keep within its borders
domino theory
a theory that says if one region falls under the influence of something, then other nieghboring regions will soon follow
nationalism
the strong connection that people feel towards the country in which they live
subsidence living
living and thinking about getting through the day or week; not thinking about long-term things
nomadic people
people who don't live in one place for a long time, people who move around a lot
free trade
unrestricted trade; no limits
free enterprise
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
tributary
a smaller stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river
silt
fine particles of rock; Mississippi River sends it all through the Interior Plains
titanium
a strong metallic element, used in lacrosse sticks
infastructure
the set of resources, like roads and factories, that a country needs to support economic activities
literacy rate
the percentage of people who can read and write
bilingual
the ability to speak two languages