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Intergroup Relations

Social Identity

refers to the way we define ourselves in terms of our group membership.

a person's Social Identity

might include identifying with a religious group, a country, a social organization, a political party, and many other groups

ethnicity and religion, political affiliation, vocations and avocations, personal relationships, and stigmatized groups

Social psychologist Kay Deaux (2001) identified five distinct types of social identity.....

Tajfel's social identity theory

states that our social identities are a crucial part of our self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about ourselves.

Tajfel's social identity theory

theory, showed how easy it is to lead people to think in terms of "us" and "them."

in-group, out-groups

To feel good about ourselves, we need to feel good about the groups to which we belong. For this reason, individuals invariably think of the group to which they belong as an ____, a group that has special value in comparison with other groups, called ____.


The tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups is called


does not simply mean taking pride in one's group; it also involves asserting the group's superiority over other groups.


encourages in-group/out-group, we/they thinking. Consequently, it implies that ethnic out-groups are not simply different; they are worse than one's group. Hence, it may underlie prejudice


is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.


The group can be made up of people of a particular ethnicity, sex, age, religion—essentially, people who are different in some way from a prejudiced person


can be seen in many eruptions of hatred in human history.

Explicit racism

is a person's conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire.

Implicit racism

refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.


refers to an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.


results when negative emotional reactions combine with prejudicial beliefs and are translated into behavior

sexual harassment

unwelcome behavior or conduct of a sexual nature that offends, humiliates, or intimidates another person.

sexual harassment

includes unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature against an employee's, a teacher's, or a peer's wishes

sexual harassment

In the United States, it is an illegal form of sexual discrimination

Social identity

refers to the way an individual defines himself or herself in terms of their group membership.

social identity theory

states that an individual's social identity is a crucial part of their self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about themselves. In order for individuals to feel good about themselves, they need to feel good about the group to which they belong.

in group

is the group to which the individual belongs.

out group

is an external group to which they do not belong.


is the tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups.


is having an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.


can take place in many forms, such as age, sex, race, religion, or nationality.


is a worldwide phenomenon. In the United States, the most blatant instances of destructive ____ have been against African Americans. In this country an individual's views about race relations depend on that individual's own race and experience.

Explicit racism

unconsciousness and an openly shared attitude


The following reasons can be the answer to why people develop ______. competition between groups over scarce resources, motivation to enhance self-esteem, cognitive processes that contribute to a tendency to categorize and stereotype others, cultural learning


is a generalization about a group.


may lead to prejudice when they contain negative information.


is an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group just because the individual belongs to that group.

Sexual harassment

is unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that offends, humiliates, or intimidates another person.

Improve Interethnic Relations

One possible way to live in a world without prejudice or discrimination is to come to know individuals so that they might all get along. THIS IS A WAY TO.....

Improve Interethnic Relations

Contact is more effective if individuals think they are of equal status, if they feel that an authority figure sanctions their positive relationships, and if they believe that a friendship might emerge from the interaction. THIS IS A WAY TO.....

Muzafer Sherif's Robbers Cave Study

Sherif assigned boys to two competitive camps in Robbers Cave, Oklahoma. By the end of the first week, both camps knew of the other and the we/they talk started to develop.
With each competitive event, the teams saw the other team as competing unfairly.
Sherif tried to set things up so that the two teams would have noncompetitive contact, but this did not work. The only thing that did work in getting the two teams to cooperate was to have them jointly solve a problem.

Elliot Aronson

stressed that a certain classroom needed to be changed from one of unequal competition to one of cooperation among equals.

jigsaw classroom

works by having all individuals in the classroom pull together to promote the big picture.

jigsaw classroom

The use of this has been associated with increased self-esteem, better academic performance, friendships among classmates, and improved interethnic perceptions.

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