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50 terms

Western Civ Final: Terms

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Nepotism
Putting relatives in positions of church power
Simony
Buying church office
Hocket
A single melody is shared between two voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests
Isorhythmic
When a piece has the same rhythm throughout
Aria
A sung solo
Arioso
A miniature sung solo
Recitative
Half music, half speech, used in opera
Basso Continuo
A part played by a harpsichord or organ that doubles the bass part already
Ground Bass
A bass with a small, repeating motif
Iconography
The study of subject matter or symbolism in a piece
Humanism
Putting the emphasis on the individual, the body, and classical references
Sfumato
Smoky, a blending of colors with low contrast
Chiaroscuro
The use of light and dark, shadows
Forced Chiaroscuro
A high amount of contrast bringing the audience's eye to the most important part of the piece
Pyramidal Composition
When the focuses of the piece form an equilaterlal triangle
Orthogonals
Lines in scientific perspective that meet at one vanishing point
Medium
What materials are used in the piece
Patronage
Who paid for the piece
Grisaille
"Painted Architecture"
Putti
Cherubs; Baby Angels
Rustication
When the bricks themselves show through
Contrapossto
A natural position (unsymmetrical, dispersed weight)
Cadence
The end of a musical phrase, marked by a pause (i.e. a period)
Octave
An 8 note interval
Homophony
When two or more parts move together in harmony
Polyphony
When two or more parts are distinct and independent
Monophony
When one or more parts are together and on the same note
Composition
How forms are placed; the layout
Nave
Center isle of a church
Apse
Semi-circular area beyond the altar
Capital
The top of a column
Metope
The space in between small reliefs in a Doric building
Tuscan Order Column
A Roman version of an ionic column
Entasis
The bulge half way up a greek column that makes it appear straight
Pediment
A tympanum-like space on a greek temple
Tympanum
The space above an entryway, often sculpted in relief
Relief
A statue partially raised from a flat plane
Sculpture in the round
A sculpture meant to be viewed from all angles except below the base
Disguised Symbolism
When aspects of art hold hidden meanings (Common in the Northern Renaissance.)
Plainchant (Gregorian Chant)
Unaccompanied, monophonic music for voice
Reciting Tone
The Pitch on which the text is sung with the exception of small variations at the beginnings and ends of phrases
Antiphon
A musical genre where the piece is a response to a traditional plainchant piece.
Sequence
A series of short notes sung twice with some variation (A A' B B' C C'...)
Drone
A single two-note chord running continuously
Troubadours
Noble Poet-composers and performers of court songs
Strophic
Different words but the same general melody
Estampies
One line pieces in triple meter where similar musical phrases are repeated many times in varied forms
Organum
A Traditional plainchant with another melody in counterpoint being sung simultaneously
Motet
A sacred vocal composition
Madrigal
The main secular vocal genre of the Renaissance