Terms in this set (38)

Kenya is in East Africa, lies on the equator andd has a tropical climate.
Environmental effects: There is much more surviving wildlife in Kenya than there would have been if the game parks had not been. Boats drop their anchors into the coral and some tourists take pieces of coral away as souvenirs. The armies of minibuses surround and disturb animals. Minibuses churn up the ground in the wet seasons can make tourists trapped in the bog. Minibuses ruin vegetation and increase soil erosion.
Economic: Kenyas biggest foreign exchange earner is tourism. Increase in employment. (Direct- 250 000, indirect: 250 000). There was some violence in 1997 and consequence in a drop with tourism. Relies on inflow of foreign exchange. Tourism increases a demand for services. Visitor numbers go up and down. Tourist money goes directly to local people.
Social: There are conflicts between local tribespeople, the masai, and the kenyan authorities. Acute shortages of grazing land, coupled with rapid population growth, have forced farmers to move closer to the edges of the parks. Less than 2% of the money benefited by the parks go towards the local people. Villagers and tribespeople are injured by animals but cant kill them. Local people had to be moved away from their traditional grazing grounds. Many now live a more permanent life, earning money by selling small artefacts, and performing traditional dances. The government has begun to work with the masai allocating them a share of the wealth obtained from tourism to help improve their education, housing and water supply.
The galapagos islands are a small chain of islands found 1000km fromthe west coast of south america. They are ecudorian, and are home to a great array of animals and plants.The galapagos islands are most famous because many of the plants and animals found there are not found anywhere else in the world. This is because the islands are isolated or cut off from the rest of the worlds land mass by the specific ocean, allowing the plants and animals to evolve in their own way for hundrends and thousands of years. Approximately 90% of the islands are designated as national parks and there are only 20,000 permanent human residents (although this has vision from 9,000 only 20 years ago). In many cases of tourism some of the profits go back into protecting the environment and the tourism, with few visitor number densities and environmental approaches to accomodation and food.
The goverment of ecuador had been helpful in protecting the galapagos islands. A 'special law for glapagos' has been created to protect the environment. However, local people make a valuable living from tourism and there are few other employment opportunities available. Tourists generate a lot of bussiness in the local economy as guides, restraints, hotels, boat owners and cleaners all benefit. Visitors recieve info. on how to conserve the islands. Tourists visit under strict rules. They can only visit on small ships of 10-16 tourists,most of which are owned by local people. The tourists can only visit a limited number of places on the islands, thus protecting the rest of the islands. They also have to pay a £25 fee to promote conservation on the island.
There is no guarantee that derelict or crashed vehicles left by private expeditioners will be removed from Antarctica as they should. The guidelines are not mandatory . 2 of the largest ships carrying over 400 passengers has not signed up. Tourism is expected to double in the next 10 years currently 35 million visit Antarctica per year. The main positive impact of polar tourism is its educational value. Arctic and Antarctic visitors are fascinated by he sheer beauty of wilderness and natural phenomenon of polar environments. Another threat comes from smaller expeditions that are becoming increasingly common by individuals and small parties. Antarctica requires careful planning and a series of fail safe rescue procedures if anyone gets into difficulty. Oil slips are an increasing form of pollution in Antarctica as a result of increasing shipping activity in the region. These large ships were a great concern as an incident involving an oil or fuel spill from them would have been very significant. Any kind of rescue of evacuation would also have been very difficult owing to the large numbers of people on board. An increasing problem in Antarctica waters is debris lost overboard from ships particularly fishing ships. Bits of fishing net, line, boxes, strapping bonds etc. might sound harmless but they have a deadly effect on wildlife. While tourists may spend a relatively small time on landings it is by nature relatively 'high impact time'- compared to a scientist or electrician who probably spend most of their time on permanent or semi-permanent base. Tourists also by their nature will want to visit wildlife rich areas and they do so in great numbers.
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