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demographic transition

the process by which a country moves from relatively high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates


the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

industrial stage

the third stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by falling birth rates that close the gap with falling death rates and reduce the rate of population growth

IPAT model

I = P x A x T, where I = Total Impact, P = Population, A=Affluence, T=Technology

life expectancy

the average age that a newborn infant can expect to attain in a particular time and place

natural rate of population change

change due to birth and death rates alone, excluding migration

post-industrial stage

the fourth and final stage of the demographic transition model, in which both birth and death rates have fallen to a low level and remain stable there, and populations may even decline slightly

pre-industrial stage

the first stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by conditions that defined most of human history; high birth and death rates

replacement fertility

the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)

total fertility rate (TFR)

the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

transitional stage

the second stage of the demographic transition model, which occurs during the transition from the pre-industrial stage to the industrial stage; characterized by declining death rates, but continued high birth rates

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