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11 terms

Ch. 8 Human Population

STUDY
PLAY
demographic transition
the process by which a country moves from relatively high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates
demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
industrial stage
the third stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by falling birth rates that close the gap with falling death rates and reduce the rate of population growth
IPAT model
I = P x A x T, where I = Total Impact, P = Population, A=Affluence, T=Technology
life expectancy
the average age that a newborn infant can expect to attain in a particular time and place
natural rate of population change
change due to birth and death rates alone, excluding migration
post-industrial stage
the fourth and final stage of the demographic transition model, in which both birth and death rates have fallen to a low level and remain stable there, and populations may even decline slightly
pre-industrial stage
the first stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by conditions that defined most of human history; high birth and death rates
replacement fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
transitional stage
the second stage of the demographic transition model, which occurs during the transition from the pre-industrial stage to the industrial stage; characterized by declining death rates, but continued high birth rates