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Unit 9 Global Change review
Terms in this set (30)
What is BOD? What does it indicate?
Biological Oxygen Demand. Low BOD means a less polluted body of water. High BOD means more polluted body of water.
How does Nitrogen and Phosphorus get into human waste water?
As the waste is being decomposed, nitrogen and phosphorus are a product of the decomposition.
What does fecal coliform bacteria indicate?
It is an indicator of water quality.
Why is heat considered a water pollutant?
Since not all organisms can adapt to the temperature change in water, they often die or organism respiration increases.
1. Groundwater/ Drinking Water
2. Causes cancers and various health issues
3. EPA lowered consumable limit
Where does sediment pollution come from? How does it impact aquatic ecosystems?
Sediment pollution can come from erosion or decomposition of construction activity. It causes water to become brown/murky, reduces sunlight which reaches plants and organisms.
What is the Safe Drinking Water Act? What types of water does it apply to?
Sets the National standard for SAFE drinking water. It applies to surface and groundwater.
Goal is for solid waste material to settle out of wastewater. Solids are then dried and turned into sludge, which is the exposed to bacteria to be digested. The sludge is then taken to landfills to be burned and turned into fertilizer.
break down 85-95% of organic matter in water and convert it to carbon dioxide and inorganic nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus using bacteria.
What are the 3 ways wastewater is disinfected?
Using chlorine, Ozone, and ultraviolet light to kill any remaining pathogens.
What is a benefit of tertiary treatment?
The water can be added back into streams, lakes, and rivers, where it can be added back into the water cycle.
What does Sonar do?
Disrupts the communication among whales.
List some diseases caused by drinking water contaminated with human waste.
Cholera, typhoid fever, stomach flu, diarrhea, hepatitis
Explain what Eutrophication is.
The decomposition of waster water can provide an abundance of fertility to a water body.
What is oxygen demanding waste water, and why does it demand oxygen?
Organic matter that centers a body of water and forces the growth of microbes that are decomposers. The microbes require oxygen to decompose waste. More waste = More oxygen needed.
1. Sediment pollution
2. Nutrient pollution
3. Thermal pollution
4. Pathogen pollution
5. Chemical pollution
1. Particles of soil that run off of construction sites etc.
2. N, P, and K that run off of residential yards, agricultural fields, etc.
3. Heat added to water from power plants, and other industrial processes
4. Viruses, Bacteria, Pathogens etc.
5. Pesticides, Hormones, Pharmaceuticals
What did Chattanooga do to clean up the city?
- Created it's own air pollution legislation
- Controlled Sulfur Dioxide emissions
- Place many regulations
-Controlled amount of vehicle automobile emissions
- Sulfur dioxide,
- nitrogen oxides,
- carbon monoxide,
- particulate matter
- PM2, PM2.5
What pollutants have been added to the list of pollutants covered by the Clean Air Act? Which ones probably should be added?
- Carbon dioxide was added
- VOC and Hg should be added
What is the difference between photochemical/brown smog, sulfurous/gray smog and atmospheric brown cloud?
- Photochemical/Brown Smog- dominated by oxidants
- Sulfurous/Gray Smog- sulfur dioxide and sulfate compounds
- Atmospheric Brown- Combination of particulate matter and ozone
What is the difference between primary and secondary pollutants?
- primary pollutant - air pollutant emitted directly from a source
- secondary pollutant - not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants react in the atmosphere
How can we control sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions?
- Filters and Scrubbers:
- remove pollutants from the exhaust stream before they can be released into the environment.
The use of filters and scrubbers is preferable to trying to remove pollutants after they have been distributed throughout the environment
How does a scrubber work? What does it remove?
- Once sulfur is burned and produces SO2, the exhaust gas passes through the scrubber where a spray mixture of limestone (or other chemical reagent) and water reacts with the SO2
- Enables the SO2 to be removed before it's released into the atmosphere
How do many households in China, India and sub-Saharan Africa typically cook food? What problems does this cause?
- They use wood, animal manure, and crop residues as their fuel
- Causes the people in the house to be exposed to carbon monoxide and particulate matter
What is the composition of the Troposphere?
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1 % Other gases
Coal Burning Power Plants can be considered a major source for all of the following except
- Photochemical Smog
particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, lead
Ozone is beneficial when it is in the ? But Harmful when it is in the ?
Ozone is beneficial when it is in the Stratosphere But Harmful when it is in the Troposphere
Caused by burning fossil fuel and car exhaust. Can cause reduced visibility, respiratory issues etc. Reduction can be done by filtering, electrostatic precipitators, and alternative energy
What is Sick Building Syndrome?
situations in which building residents experience acute health and effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified
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