..., are responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body, proteins found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds, trypsinogen, trypsin, protease, lipases, amylases, nucleases, proteases, Lipase, amylase, chymotrypsin, tryspin, and carboxypeptidase., the chief cells of the gastric glands secrete, break bonds between atoms in large molecules to produce smaller molecules. Produced by salivary glands, cells lining the stomach and small intestine, and the pancreas., embedded in the intestinal epithelial cells and break food down just before absorption/peptidase, sucrase, maltase, lactase and lipase, proteins that aid in the breakdown of food: pepsin and salivary amylase, Protein molecules that speed up digestion by catalyzing chemical reactions. Digestive enzymes catalyze chemical reactions known as hydrolysis reactions., catalyst that facilitate a chemical reaction without being changed or used up in the process; usually end in ase(protein), cleave α-glycosidic likages in starch, not β-glycosidic bonds in cellulose (insoluble fiber) ..., a. Glucose Storage
c. Crebs Cycle
d. The Cytochrome System and Oxidative Phosphorylation., glucose<---->glycogen
lactic acid ----> glucose, ketones, zinc deficiency = decreased insulin and the response = impaired glucose tolerance, Oxidation of glucose (cellular respiration): Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and Electron transport chain., hepatocytes break down glycogen reserves and release glucose into the bloodstream., fate of glucose depends on needs of body. ATP production or synthesis of amino acids, glycogen, or triglycerides. GluT transporters bring glucose into the cell via facilitate diffusion (diffusion via carrier). Insulin causes insertion of more of these transporters, increasing rate of entry into cells. Glucose trapped in cells after being phosphorylated, Occurs in muscle cells, adipose cells, or liver cells. Glucose can feely enter the liver cells without the aid of insulin, but it will not enter cardiac muscle, resting skeletal muscle, or adipose tissue unless those cells are signaled by insulin to allow facilitated diffusion of glucose to enter, after eating: liver removes carbohydrates from plasma --> stores them as glycogen/ fatty acids --> when in need --> glycolysis/gluconeogenesis --> production of energy by oxidative phosphorylation + B-oxidation of FA in hepatic mito. to sustain the activities of the hepatocyte., polysacharides to oligosacharides to disacharides to monosacharides
..., a. Proteins used primarily as structural components, cannot by stored for use later.
b. If inadequate glucose, proteins broken down to AA's, which can be truned into pyruvic or acetic acid.
c. Of the 20 AA's the body cannot produce 8-9 essential AA's, these must be consumed., The liver is involved in this, which includes synthesis of proteins, synthesis of non-essential amino acids, deamination and transamination of amino acids an removal of ammonia from body by urea synthesis., Synthesized proteins are actively transported across cell membranes, The liver is involved in this, which includes synthesis of proteins, synthesis of non-essential amino acids, deamination and transamination of amino acids an removal of ammonia from body by urea synthesis., Synthesized proteins are actively transported across cell membranes, STEP 1:Proteolysis (make AAs) -> to liver for function (or energy if starving)
-excess to fatty acids/energy (TG)
STEP 2: deamination (Nitrogen made into urea)
STEP 3: enter TCA (pyruvate, oxaloacetate, acetyl CoA, ingested amino acids used to replace old proteins 100g/day
if more protein is ingested than is needed amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat
..., fatty acids and glycerol to acetyl CoA, a metabolic process that breaks down ingested fats into fatty acids and glycerol and then into simpler compounds that can be used by cells of the body, Triglycerides can be hydrolyzed to glycerol & fatty acids (can be run thru Kreb's), gylcerol is converted into pyruvate, which enters the kreb cycle, fatty acids are broken down into 2 C fragments by beta oxidation, then 2 C pieces enter the Kreb cycle, Most efficient form of storage: more cals per gram so good for storage. Fatty acids used to produce ATP or glucose. Ketones are produced when liver degrades fatty acids (too may=acidosis from starvation or lg amt of fat breakdown), Primarily energy foods. If cells have inadequaet glucoe from carb they use fats. Fats are converted to a form of glucose in this case and enters the citric acid cycle. Fats not needed for catabolism are stored as adipose (fat) tissue., Lipids are broken down in to fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are further broken down via beta oxidation. These can enter Krebs cycle for further digestion producing NADH and FDHA2 to be processed through the electron transport chain, Liver is involved in this which includes hydrolysis of triglycerides using the glycerol for glycolysis and the fatty acids for beta-oxidation, synthesis of most lipoproteins, major site for converting excess carbs and proteins into FAs and TGs (exported and stored in adipose) and synthesis of large quantities of cholesterol and phospholipds some packaged as lipoproteins and made available to the rest of the body where as the rest are excreted in bile. Amylose
sugar molecules that can be hydrolyzed or digested to yield two molecules of the same or different simple sugars, such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose, are long chains of sugars called polysaccharides (ex. starch, cellulose, chitin (mold and yeast have Chitin), Polysaccharides (breads, cereal, potatoes, rice, pasta etc..., Polysaccarides (ex. starch, cellulose, glycogen)
Non-glycerides, energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, biochemicals that do not dissolve in water (fats, oils, and waxes) make up cell membranes, store energy, Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets (p. 46)., diverse compounds that consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, Nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. They include fats, phospholipds, steroids, and waxes., fat; carbon, hydrogen and water; 1:2 ratio contain less oxygen than carbohydrates with the same number of carbon atoms; ex: C12H24O2; contain small traces of phorsphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur; fats, oils, and waxes- insuluable in water - body uses transport mechanisms - 12-18% of body weight;
..., formed by the attachment to glycerol; dehydration synthesis produces monoglyceride(glycerol plus one fatty acid) diglyceride (glycerol + two fatty acids), triglyceride (gylcerol + three fatty acids), the most common form of lipids consisting of a glycerol molecule with up to three fatty acids, Fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule, chemical group named for fats formed from glycerides w/ fatty acids to make mono; di; & triglycerides animal & veggie fats/oils, A lipid made of glycerol + fatty acids, fats that are part of lipids, there are two types: saturated and unsaturated., Formed when fatty acids are linked to glycerol via dehydration synthesis., the simple lipids, are the most common form of lipids, they consist of a glycerol molecule with up to three fatty acids attached ..., glycerol, two fatty acids and a phospate group; phospholipids, triglyerides; phospholipids; waxes, simple lipids containing additional elements or small carbon compounds, contain elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfer in addition to CHO, Contain C, H, O, and P, N, or S. Membranes are made of phospholipids, contain c,h,o,p,n,or s. their membranes are made of phospholipids & they form bi-layers in the presence of H20. ..., simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the body's cells, unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids, building blocks of lipids, Substances produced when fats are digested, Monomer of lipids, long chains carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached. carboxylic acid group; the carboxyl end accociates with water molecules-hydrophilic portion; hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic, chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids., A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat., simple forms of fat that supply energy fuel for most of the bodys cells, molecules which can combine with glycerol to make fats, Three of these make a triglyceride, along with an alcohol called glycerol, Linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon chains) with an organic acid group at one end. A constituent of fat. ..., The first carbon atom adjacent to the carbon attached to the targeted functional group., At the center of an amino acid is an asymmetric carbon atom called the, Has four groups bonded to it; R side chain, amino group, carboxyl group, and hydrogen, refers to the first carbon that attaches to a functional group, the central carbon to which the amino group, carboxyl group, and R group are bonded ..., An organic compound containing a carboxyl group, COOH, a functional group consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group ; it is found in carboxylic acids, an acidic functional group(COOH), Chemical Formula: -COOH
suffix = -oic, a functional group present in organic acids, lipids, -COOH, carbon with an oxygen and an hydrogen oxygen connected to it, responsible for the acid part of the name of fatty acids, Acidic
Releases H+, A peptide bond forms between
..., A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1., NH2, A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms, A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+., -NH2 a nitrogen atom combined with 2 hydrogen atoms in a covalent bond- ends with amine, what can be found in tendons, proteins, and enzymes? ..., the parts of the amino acids that are not involved in forming peptide bonds, If there are no double/triple bonds, then ___ _____ receive the lowest possible numbers when numbering carbons in the naming process., Step 5 in naming a hydrocarbon: Identify ____ ____ and organize the names in alphabetical order., R groups that extend off the protein chain., in proteins, ionic bonds occur between these parts of charged amino acids, determine chemical properties; nonpolar, polar, acidic, or basic, give amino acids its unique properties, R groups of amino acids, determine polar or nonpolar amino acid., The 20 protein amino acids are classified depending on the nature of their ____ ______, influences behavior and function of protein, 20 amino acids differe unique R-group. Non polar are hydrohobic. Polar are hydrophilic and can form hydrogen bonds and disolve in water. Gycine the only one with just an H side chain. ..., gastrin: digestive protein, secretes hcl & pepsin, stimulates motiltity
secretin: inside duodenum,stimulated by acid, secretion of bile& bicarb, NEUTRALIZE ACIDIC CHYME
cck: fat digestion,gastric emptying, satiety, usually made of proteins, act as chemical messengers, regulate enzyme action
ex. gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory peptide, -gastrin: stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid from stomach
-cholycystokinin-stimulates contraction of gallbladder to increase the flow of bile to small intestine, stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymatic juices into small intestine, Gastrin: helps digest proteins
Secretin: Helps neutralize acid
CCK: optimizes conditions for fat digestion
Insulin: Helps Glucose go from blood to cell, will lower blood glucose levels and amino acid levels
Glucagon: raises blood glucose levels and fatty acid levels
..., in plant foods the non starch polysaccharides that are no digested by human digestive enzymes although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages, non polysaccharide ligins, cutins, and tannis, the nonstarch polysaccharides whose bonds cannot be broken by human digestion. yield little energy. help regulate passage of food through GI system. soluble and insoluble., decreased risk of colon cancer and diverticulosis, increased GI motility, decreased rate of glucose absorption, increased cholesterol excretion, indigestible carbohydrates. Insoluble fibers (wheat bran, fruits, vegetables) Soluble fibers (legumes, oats, fruits, vegetables), aid in digestion., in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. they include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages as well as the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins. ..., → Insulin is composed of two chains held together by disufide bonds. Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas. The insulin mRNA is translated as a single chain preproinsulin, and removal of its signal peptide during insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum generates precursor called proinsulin., high blood glucose leads to (3),
Insulin Release - Stimulated when blood glucose concentration becomes too high. As blood glucose level concentration falls, this release is inhibited, in respone to carbohydrates and proteins, inhibits Hunger Center and increases POMC release from the Satiety center., *High Blood glucose (main stimulus)
*High blood amino acids
*High blood fatty acid
*Glucose-dependant Insulinotropic peptide (GIP)
-A hormone released into the digestive system in response to glucose in the digestive tract, *Low blood glucose
*Low blood amino acids
*Low blood fatty acids
*Somastatin (released by the delta cells of the pancreas), Insulin inhibits glucagon secretion, especially if there's high glucose, (1) cephalic stage - sensory stimuli from food evoke conditioned release of insulin in anticipation of glucose arrival (2)digestive phase - food enters intestives which causes release of gut hormones which stimulate pancrease to produce insulin (3) absorbitive phase- glucose enters bloodstream and cells on liver called glucodetectors detect it and signal the pancreas to release insulin, Glucose enters the β-cells through the glucose transporter GLUT2
Glucose goes into glycolysis and the respiratory cycle, where multiple high-energy ATP molecules are produced by oxidation
Dependent on the ATP:ADP ratio, and hence blood glucose levels, the ATP-dependent potassium channels (K+) close and the cell membrane depolarizes
On depolarization, voltage controlled calcium channels (Ca2+) open and calcium flows into the cells
An increased calcium level causes activation of phospholipase C, which cleaves the membrane phospholipid phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate into inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol.
Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) binds to receptor proteins in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This allows the release of Ca2+ from the ER via IP3 gated channels, and further raises the cell concentration of calcium.
Significantly increased amounts of calcium in the cells causes release of previously synthesized insulin, which has been stored in secretory vesicles, most impt regulator - blood glucose
beta cells - glucose taken up (GLUT2) and used to make ATP
- ATP sensitive K channel: opens (hyperpolarizes) with low ATP, closes (depolarizes) with high ATP
- depolarizing cell - releases insulin, in response to HIGH glucose levels, the BETA cells in the pancreas stimulate the uptake of glucagon by the GLUT2 transporter producing a rise inf ATP:ADP ratio; causing the inactivation of the potassium channel that depolarizes the membrane allowing calcium to flow in causing release of insulin, Made in response to ATP from glucose metabolism- closes K+ channels and depolarizes cells- thus causing an influx of Ca and vesicle release
Starts as a long chain; C-peptide is removed from pro-insulin and the final structure is an alpha and beta chain connected by disulfide bonds
..., very low density lipoprotein, large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL, Very low density lipoproteins, starts with triglycerides and cholesterol, but distributes triglycerides all over the body, VLDL molecules are produced by the liver and contain excess triacylglycerol and cholesterol that is not required by the liver for synthesis of bile acids. These molecules contain apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein E in their shell. During transport in the bloodstream, the blood vessels cleave and absorb more triacylglycerol to leave IDL (VLDL remnants) molecules, which contain an even higher percentage of cholesterol.
The IDL molecules have two possible fates: Half are taken up by the liver for metabolism into other biomolecules and the other half continue to lose triacylglycerols in the bloodstream until they form LDL molecules, which have the highest percentage of cholesterol within them., this type of lipoprotein contains most of the TG. high levels may increase the risk of premature atherosclerosis in persons with DM, HTN, and smoking. optimal level is less than 151 mg/dl
..., fat droplets covered in protein that diffuse into capillaries in small intestine, the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body, lipoproteins formed in the cells lining the small intestine following absorption of fats. they are made in the small intestinal cells and transpost dietary lipids to the liver, lipoproteins that transport newly absorbed dietary fats in the lymph and blood, one of the small intracellular globules composed of fats that are mixed with cholesterol and coasted with special proteins, water-soluble globules that are made by the recombination of fats into triglycerides within the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and then coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins; too large to pass through membranes of capillaries to be absorbed, ..., Emulsified lipid droplets in the small intestine are scientifically termed ________., clusters of fatty acids monglycerides and bile salts with fat soluble vitamin cores that enable breakdown products of fat digestion to contact microvilli and be absorbed by epithelial cells, tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion; most contain bile salts and the products of lipid digestion including ffay acids monoglycerides, and cholesterol., emulsified fat droplets, Amphipathic lipids with single hydrocarbon chains (fatty acids), complex of bile salts and the freed fatty acids/monoglycerides from lipase digestion, immediately following a high-fat meal, specialized lipoproteins called ___ are created to transport dietary fat through the blood, particles formed in the small intestine when the products of fat digestion are surrounded by bile acids; facilitate absorption of fat, emulsified fat droplets containing bile, monoglycerides, long chained FAs, finely dispersed complexes of emulsified fat globules; soluble in aqueous media, fat particles encircled(to form a circle around/pass around) by bile salt s to facilitate(bring out) their diffusion(spread out) into intestinal cells. ..., The circulation of drugs which were originally secreted in the bile via the liver, then reabsorbed by the stomach, and brought back to the liver where they are again biotransformed., compounds secreted in the bile following liver metabolism are cleaved, conjugate removed, and reabsorbed. Increases half life. Example = preparin -> estrogen pill, 80% of excreted bile acids are reabsorbed (by active transport in the ileum) and recycled via the liver is called what?, if drug still lipophilic, may be reabsorbed into body again and again until hydrophilic., process that recycles cholesterol in the body, The continual recycling of compounds in the small intestine and liver, circulation of recycled bile, the recirculation of compounds between the liver and the intestine. many of the compounds are released in bile reabsorbed in small intestine and returend to liver to be recycled., Many phenolic compounds, includins flavonoids and lignans are thought to be subjected to the "enterohepatic" cycle, a process in which their biliary metabolites are split by bacteria in the bowel releasing the parent phenol, which is reabsorbed via the portal vein back to the liver. Thus the active life of the molecule is exteended. This cycle permits the conservation of endogenous substances such as bile acids, estrogens, and some vitamins. ..., Combinations of protein, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the blood that are important because of their role in influencing the risk of heart disease, Composed of lipids and proteins. Transport fats throughout bod - composed of HDL and LDL proteins., clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood, tiny droplets with a core of cholesterol and triglycerides and a coating of proteins and phopholipids, are categorized into 4 groups by their density: more protein means more dense, clusters of lipids and proteins that serve as transport vehicles for fats in lymphatic and vascular systems, A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids whose function is to transport water-insoluble lipids in the water-based bloodstream. The lipids or their derivatives may be covalently or non-covalently bound to the proteins.
Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesins and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include the high density (HDL) and low density (LDL) lipoproteins which enable fats to be carried in the blood stream, the transmembrane proteins of the mitochondrion and the chloroplast, and bacterial lipoproteins
..., The liver can combine two acetyl groups into one of three compounds which are released into the blood. Cells in heart and brain use them to make Acetyl CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle., the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells, breakdown products resulting from increased delivery of free fatty acids to the liver and from catabolism of the fatty acids, compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids, including acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone., In liver, FA and AA are metabolized to acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate. In starvation and diabetic ketoacidosis, oxaloacetate is depleted for gluconeogensis. Shunt glucose and FFA toward production of ketone bodies. Brain metabolizes ketone bodies to 2 molecules of acetyl-CoA. They are excreted in urine. Breath smells fruity (acetone), Formed in the liver
Increased when oxaloacetate is depleted and the TCA cannot progress (alcoholism, starvation, DKA), derived from fatty acids and stored in the liver but can be oxidized by skeletal muscles for energy
..., The formation of ketones from the excess products of lipid breakdown, formation of ketone bodies instead of acetyl CoA from fatty acids, This is the synthesis of ketone bodies from acetyl CoA, formation of ketone bodies from acetyl co-enzyme-A in liver; ketone bodies can be a secondary energy source for heart & kidneys, this pathway occurs in the liver yields an alternative fuel source for skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, nerves, renal cortex. Generally only active under fasting conditions when acetyl CoA is in abundance due to FA metabolism. The abundance of acetyl CoA is converted to 3-hydroxybutyrate., stimulated by glucagon, Ketone body formation in liver, oxidation (removes electrons), making ketone bodies from acetyl coa when there is inadequate glucose in the cells, increased as a result of lypolysis in the liver, In liver. Acetyl Coa + Acetoacyl Coa > HMG CoA > acetoacetate + Acetyl Coa; acetoacetate (rdxn; NADH)> β-hydroxybutyrate; Some acetoacetate sponateously > acetone, Mitochondrial Matrix of Liver cells.
In response to low glucose levels in the blood, and after exhaustion of cellular carbohydrate stores, such as glycogen (e.g. Fasting, Diabetes Melitus)
The production of ketone bodies is then initiated to make available energy that is stored as fatty acids. Fatty acids are enzymatically broken down in β-oxidation to form acetyl-CoA.
Under normal conditions, acetyl-CoA is further oxidized in the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle).
However, if the amounts of acetyl-CoA generated in fatty-acid β-oxidation challenge the processing capacity of the TCA cycle or if activity in the TCA cycle is low due to low amounts of intermediates such as oxaloacetate, acetyl-CoA is then used instead in biosynthesis of ketone bodies via acetoacetyl-CoA and β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA).
Besides its role in the synthesis of ketone bodies, HMG-CoA is also an intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
..., another name for cellular respiration, Body's preferred energy source=glucose. most tissues/organs able to use other forms of ATP production (except brain/NS bc it cannot use fats/proteins to make ATP and cant store glucose), Body uses both glucose (MAIN fuel) and fats (between meals) for fuel. Brain can't burn fats, so constant glucose needed there. Glucagon is released from pancreas to initiate secretion of glycogen from liver and convert to glucose. Epinephrine also has glucagon-like effect and causes further release of glycogen from liver., Adipose & muscle cells possess insulin receptors on the cell membrane that bind to insulin & activate glucose transporters. These transporters facilitate the diffusion of glucose. The presence of insulin stimulates the diffusion of glucose into adipose & muscle tissue., Glycolysis- converts glucose to pyruvate (10 steps)
Three possible fates for pyruvate
- With oxygen --> aerobic oxidation
- Without oxygen --> anaerobic homolactic fermentation
-Without oxygen in yeast -->anaerobic alcoholic fermentation
****Energy is captured at different specific steps, increase uptake of glucose,
increase glucose absorption, Yields 2NADPH and 1 ATP per Glucose., • After a meal, glucose is taken up from the portal venous blood by the liver and converted into glycogen, which is stored in the hepatocytes
• Subsequently, the glycogen is converted back to glucose (glycogenolysis) and released as needed into the bloodstream to maintain normal levels of blod glucose, 1. Crosses cell membrane and is absorbed via facilitated diffusion
2. Glycolysis—hexokinase (enzyme) converts glucose into G-6-P; now it cannot cross back over the cell membrane. It is trapped
3. Glycolysis continues—phosphoglucoisomerase (enzyme) converts G-6-P to fructose -6-P. Not it can be released from the cell
..., a metabolic process that breaks down ingested fats into fatty acids and glycerol and then into simpler compounds that can be used by cells of the body, liver is responsible for this; fat storage (manufactures cholesterol), primarily energy foods, catabolized for energy. catabolized if glucose supplies inadequate., Triglycerides can be hydrolyzed to glycerol & fatty acids (can be run thru Kreb's), gylcerol is converted into pyruvate, which enters the kreb cycle, fatty acids are broken down into 2 C fragments by beta oxidation, then 2 C pieces enter the Kreb cycle, Most efficient form of storage: more cals per gram so good for storage. Fatty acids used to produce ATP or glucose. Ketones are produced when liver degrades fatty acids (too may=acidosis from starvation or lg amt of fat breakdown), are primarily an energy food converted to glucose by catabolism.
exceso is anabolized by adipose tissue.
LIPASE enzyme digests LIPID., Fat is found in muscle and in adipose tissue
Fat is also available in lipoproteins (VLDL and Chylomicrons)
HSL stimulated via epinephrine, norepinephrine and glucagon
Fatty acids are transported across mitochondrial inner membrane via carnitine involved transport system
, liver cells use fats to make ATP for their own cells use. some to make thromboplastin ( clotting protein). some to make cholesterol. then releases in bloodstream, Liver is a major storage of lipids
Phospholipids for cell membrane
Cholesterol makes vitamin D, Advantages
- Unlimited supply of fat in the body (for energy, vitamin storage, hormone production and transport, temperature regulation, etc.)
- Not associated with production of lactic acid
- Requires sufficient oxygen, can only be metabolized using the aerobic energy system
- Cannot be tapped into w/o the presence of sufficient carbohydrate to get the "aerobic factory" working (you need glucose to tap into Fat)
..., The liver is involved in this, which includes synthesis of proteins, synthesis of non-essential amino acids, deamination and transamination of amino acids an removal of ammonia from body by urea synthesis., Synthesized proteins are actively transported across cell membranes, Proteins comprised of amino acids, limited storage of AAs (excess converted to fatty acids, ketones, glucose). Generally NOT used for energy production (only when other sources are not available), The liver is involved in this, which includes synthesis of proteins, synthesis of non-essential amino acids, deamination and transamination of amino acids an removal of ammonia from body by urea synthesis., proteins are broken down in to amino acids which then are converted to organic acids by means of deamination, decarboxylation or dehydrogenation., amino acids are either oxidized to produce ATP or used to synthesize new proteins. Excess dietary amino acids are not excreted but converted into glucose (gluconeogenesis) or triglycerides (lipogenesis), STEP 1:Proteolysis (make AAs) -> to liver for function (or energy if starving)
-excess to fatty acids/energy (TG)
STEP 2: deamination (Nitrogen made into urea)
STEP 3: enter TCA (pyruvate, oxaloacetate, acetyl CoA, deamination of amino acids-amino acids stripped of nitrogen-containing amino acid group resulting in ammonia and keto acid-keto acids create non-essential amino acids, used to make non essential amino acids, used to make other compounds like hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters, lipoproteins, used for energy, deanimation, gluconeogenesis
..., breakdown of triglycerides, the hydrolysis of fat; the decomposition of fats, breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol, breaking down fat for fuel, the enzyme-driven catabolism of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol, lipid catabolism; splitting of triglycerides into glycerol & fatty acids; first step in formation of of ATP from triglycerides; stimulated by cortisol & epinephrine (considered anti-insulin hormones), the breakdown of fats into free fatty acids, to be used as an energy resource (ketones) in low insulin states; results in DKA in severe insulin deprivation. also results in the release of free fatty acids into the blood stream. pver time, raises blood lipid levels and contributes to atherosclerotic changes (b/c of free floating fatty acids)., The breakdown of triglycerides into a glycerol and 3 FFA to be used as fuel for metabolic pathways. The FFA are taken through beta-oxidation where they become acetyl-CoA's and are able to enter the Krebs cycle. ...starch, cellulose, glyxogen, large macromolecule formed from manosaccharides, polymers of a few hundred to a few thousand monosacharides linked togeather by dehydration synthesis., (sugars, carbohydrates) store and transfer Energy, the monomers of this macromolecule are monosacharides, starch, glycogen, carbs long chains of sugar units linked together by dehydration synthesis, - Long change of sugar monomers; the carbohydrate
- a complex carbohydrate
- examples include: starch and cellulose, 3 monosaccharides (ex) cell walls, three or more monosaharides linked.
...2 monosaccharides, joined by a covalent bond, maltose, sucrose, lactose, 2 monosacharides linked together my dehydration synthesis (condensation)-all same formula C12H22O11
Sucrose (table sugar (glucose+frutose)
Lactose -milk sugar (glucose+galactose), 1.sucrose: table sugar combines fructose and glucose, need sucrase to break it down and absorbs in illeum
2.maltose: Glucose and glucose, need maltase to break it down
3.lactose: milk sugar, only found in milk,galactose and glucose, need galactase to break it down
4>cellobose:2 glucose, need cellobiase (fiber in feces)
...building blocks of proteins, Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy, small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules, organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups, monomers of proteins, Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein (p. 47)., any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins, A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.
9 essential, 22 all-together
...a hormone secreted by the pancreas - stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin), The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood., raises blood glucose levels, a hormone, secreted by the pancreas, that increases blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen (to glucose) in the liver, A peptide hormone produced and secreted by the alpha cells, of the pancreas. It tartes primarily the liver, stimulating the breakdown of glycogen, thus increasing blood gluocse level.s, raises blood glucose levels by increasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose synthesis in the liver ...a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids (mostly triglycerides), lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body, organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids, A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or triglyceride., nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins, A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Most function as energy-storage molecules., ------------- is solid at room temperature ...a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water, liquid at room temperature, a type of fat that remains liquid at room temperature, example of triglyceride, energy storage in animals, some plants, A common name for a triglyceride that is a liquid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids; composed of glycerol and three fatty acids, triglyceride, usually of plant origin, that is composed of glycerol and three fatty acids and is liquid in consistency due to many unsaturated bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids, an example of a liquid lipid ...fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms, a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms, a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals (p. 46)., a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms, a Fat with no double bonds (except in carboxyl group), a fat made from saturated fatty acid; animal fats are solid at room temperature because they lack double-bonds, thus flexibility enables molecules to pack together tightly, A type of fat found in dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultry., A fat, most often of animal origin, that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid chains cannot incorporate additional hydrogen atoms. An excess of these fats in the diet is thought to raise the cholesterol level in the bloodstream., animal fats, tropical oils, egg yolks, dairy foods ...the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen, cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP, is the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen, process that produces large amounts of ATP, requires oxygen and occurs in the mitochondria(powerhouse), 2 metabolic pathways known as a) Citirc Acid (Krebs) Cycle, b) Oxidative Phosphorylation, metabolic process in which pyruvate is broken down and electron-carrier molecules are used to produce ATP through electron transport., glycolysis followed by the krebs cycle, yields 36 or 38 ATP per glucose ...The use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the "downhill" end of electron transport chains., the process by which cells obtain energy from an energy source without using oxygen, series of ATP producing reactions that do not require oxygen, respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is an inorganic molecule containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, carbonate, etc., acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, and occurs when oxygen is not present, does not use oxygen allowing the pyruvate to stay in the cytoplasm to be converted into a waste product that can be removed from the cell. No ATP is produced. Humans: lactic acid, yeast: ethanol and carbon dioxide, the physiological use of chemical energy using ATP to synthesize glucose to produce more ATP, leaving lactic acid or alcohol as a biproduct., respiration that consists of glycolysis plus either alcoholic fermentation or lactic acid fermentation, It is also known as fermentation. There are two types of fermentation: Lactic Acid fermentation and Ethyl Alcohol fermentation. Fermentation occurs when there is not any oxygen, and it does NOT produce any ATP. The purpose of fermentation is to RECYCLE the NAD+ to keep glycolysis going for the net 2 ATP it produces per Glucose. 4th EditionBruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Karen Hopkin
3rd EditionDavid Klein
6th EditionK. Peter C. Vollhardt, Neil E. Schore
5th EditionKaren C. Timberlake