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Terms in this set (32)
purpose was to recruit soldiers to fight in the First World War
a bold statement or claim presented as truth, and it cannot be questioned. It is to be taken on the speaker's authority, and it's not open for discussion
when you are presented with only two solutions to a problem in an effort to convince you that one solution is better, you are faced with a false dilemma. In reality there may be more solutions.
labelling people or calling your etermy names is a way of simplifying matters and rallying support against someone or a group of people
appeal to fear
trying to persuade people by appealing to their fears. Smoking kills in many ways ... quit smoking right now!
some ideals and values, such as justice, freedom or democracy, are difficult to argue against. Speakers sometimes use glittering generalities to establish broad agreement.
appeal to authority
some people assume that people in power are inherently right. An appeal to authority can convince people to listen to their leaders, just because they are the leaders
an argumentation fallacy is an argument which is not valid, because the truth of its conclusion does not rest on the truth of its premises
false information which is intended to mislead, especially propaganda issued by a government organization to a rival power or the media.
hindsight bias (knew-it-all-along effect)
a psychological phenomenom that allows people to convince themselves after an event that they had accurately predicted it before it happened. This can lead people to conclude that they can accurately predict other events.
the act of encouraging a country to go to war or threatening violence against another country.
describes the atmosphere of the text as created by the author
a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasent or offensive word
kind of statement or claim (what)
the message reflects the purpose of communicating to an audience (why)
the way in which this message is constructed
a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader and their experience of a literary work. in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the author or the content and form of work.
an artistic or literary style that is more concerned with form than with expressing feelings or meaning
a means of convinving an audience of the reliable character or credibility of the speaker/writer, or the credibility of the argument.
to persuade by appealing to the audience's emotions. As the speaker, you want the audience to feel the same emotions you feel about something, you want to emotionally connect with them and influence them
a way of persuading an audience with reason, using facts and figures.
a metaphor is a figure of speech that describes an object or action in a way that isn't literally true, but helps explain an idea or make a comparison
people's decisions are influenced by language and metaphors
a vote in which all the people in a country or an area are asked to give their opinion about or decide an important political or social question
points to the faults or an opponent's political platform, ideas or personality
argument ad hominem
this argumentation fallacy describes an attack on a person rather than an attack on his or her ideas
calling someone names is another form of negative advertising
unlike attack ads, contrast ads include information about both candidates highlighting the negative traits of one political party to reinforce the positive traits of the other
false dichotomy (2)
closely related to contrast advertising is false dichotomy, the argumentation fallacy that presents only two choices in a debate, where in fact there are many
politicians sometimes stir up fear in order to win votes, as they present themselves as the solution to a scary problem
relating to or denoting an imagined state or society where there is great suffering or injustice
unethical or illegal campaign practices intended to disrupt or sabotage other people's campaigns
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