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Terms in this set (31)
the capacity of a physical system to do work; forms of energy include potential, kinetic, chemical, mechanical, thermal, radiant, electric, nuclear, ionizing, magnetic etc. Energy is measured in units of joules, ergs, BTUs, kilowatt-hours
the study of the flow and transformation of energy
a measure of disorder or progressing towards thermodynamic equilibrium, conceives that heat can be converted to work and back to heat
a numerical measure of hot or cold which is a detection of heat radiation or velocity of kinetic energy; measured/calibrated by temperature scales including Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin etc.
First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy, Entropy, Temperature)
Law of conservation of energy, total amount of energy in the universe or any closed system remains constant work and heat forms of energy transfer
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In a closed system matter becomes increasingly disorganized and heat becomes increasingly uniform (thermodyn. equilibrium). Total amount of energy in the universe is flowing from higher to lower quality, therefore some energy may/must be lost as entropy (systems disorder) (ex. lost in the form of thermal energy or friction)
the sum of all chemical reactions (anabolic and catabolic) that occur in the body
the sum of all the chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers that form the boys complex structural and functional components; anabolic reactions are endergonic [consume more energy (ATP) than they produce] 'synthesis'
the sum of all the chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simple ones; catabolic reactions are exergonic [produce more energy (ATP) than they consume]; 'decomposition'
is the cells capacity to acquire energy, build things, break things apart, and release substances
the "fed" state; conversion to energy storage molecules, glycogenesis (glucose to glycogen), lipogenesis (glucose or FFAs to fats)
the "starved" state; breakdown of energy storage molecules, glycolysis (glucose to private to Acetyl-CoA), glycogenolysis (glycogen to glucose), gluconeogenesis (proteins to AA to glucose), lipolysis (TGs to FFAs and glycerol)
"stored" energy (e.g. chemical potential energy => ATP high energy bonds)
the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform other chemical substances (e.g. food=> fats, carbs,proteins => TG, glucose, AA=> ATP)
the energy an object possesses due to its motion; the work needed to accelerate / decelerate a body of a given mass from rest to a specific maintained velocity
Heat (Thermal) Energy
the part of the total potential or kinetic energy of an object that results in an increase in temperature
can occur if they are "couples" to a strong exergonic reactions
provides the energy (ATP) necessary to drive the endergonic reaction
metabolic pathway in mitochondria which use enzymes and the energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP
large biological molecules responsible for thousand of metabolic processes that sustain life.
Factors influencing Enzyme Activity
pH, Temperature, enzyme, substrate, competitive inhibitors
Measuring metabolic rate
direct calorimetry- metabolism / MR/ BMS = heat produced / time. direct measure of heat loss to the environment, measure of both aerobic and anaerobic pathways
Measuring metabolic rate 2
indirect calorimetry- metabolic rate(MR)= rate of chemical energy intake minus the rate of chemical energy loss. can measure energy content of food and wastes using bomb calorimetry. measure O2 consumption, CO2 production, or both, not directly equivalent to MR but related.
Metabolism of energy sources
nutrient intake must be sufficient to meet the bodies needs for energy production and cellular synthesis
2 factors complicating the regulation of fuel metabolism
1. food intake is intermittent, not continuous excess energy must be absorbed during meals and stord during the periods of fasting in between. some glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and muscle; however, most excess food is ultimately stored as fat in adipose tissues 2. CNS depends upon a continuous, constant supply of glucose for energy.
have the ability to generate heat and maintain thermal homeostasis via metabolic processes, "warm- vs. cold blooded"
heat produced via metabolism and heat gained or lost from the environment via thermal exchange
4 kinds of thermal exchange
1. conduction- objects in direct physical contact
2. convection- objects and environment by fluid motion
3. evaporation- heat loss via evaporation of water
4. radiation- emit/ absorb electromagnetic radiation.
Temperature is homeostatic ally controlled
peripheral and core receptors sense changes in body temp
hypothalamic thermoregulatory center
integrates and initiates response
to cold- behavioral changes, activity, shivering, non-shivering thermogenesis, vasoconstriction
to heat- behavioral changes, reduced activity, vasodilation, evaporation
the range of environmental temp. over which metabolic rate is unchanged
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