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Chapter 10 - Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
Terms in this set (21)
What is a prompt? When is a prompt used in behavior modification?
prompts are used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behavior
*They are used during discrimination training
* makes teaching more effective,
Provide examples of the four types of response prompts
-Verbal- coach telling player how to throw
-Gestural- coach show motion of how to throw, where to step, and where to throw the ball
-Modeling- coach actually throws ball
-Physical- coach holding player's arm and throwing with him
What is a response prompt?
the behavior of another person that evokes the desired response in the presence of the SD.
Identify and describe four types of response prompts.
Verbal- you say something
Gestural-physical movement or gesture
Modeling-demonstration of the correct behavior
Physical-Another person physically helps a person engage in the the correct behavior
Describe two types of stimulus prompts
-Within-stimulus: changing SD
-Extrastimulus- adding another stimulus or cue to the SD
What is a stimulus prompt?
A stimulus prompt involves some change in stimulus, or the addition or removal of a stimulus to make a correct response more likely.
Provide examples of the two types of stimulus prompts
-Within-stimulus: changing the pitch slow from short distance instead of normal so the kids could learn to hit
-Extrastimulus: line drawn in the dirt next to plate by coach to help the player know the correct place to stand in the box
What is least-to-most prompting? What is the other term for it? Provide an example
"system of least prompts";
*providing the least intrusive prompt first, then using more intrusive prompts only as necessary
ex: telling someone to tie their shoe, then showing a gesture to tie the shoe, modeling tying their own shoes, helping the person tie their shoe
What is most-to-least prompting? Provide an example
the most intrusive prompt is used first and is then faded to less intrusive prompts;
*coach helps hold bat and swing, then just models, then just gestures, then just uses verbal prompts to help the player hit
What is the hierarchy of prompting?
-visual- photograph, icon, illustration, etc...
Flashing lights on a billboard that make it more likely you will read the words on the billboard are a kind of prompt. What prompt is used in this example?
stimulus (extrastimulus) prompt
*you added a stimulus
What is transfer of stimulus control? Why is it important?
a stimulus in which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD.
Prompt fading and prompt delay are procedure used to transfer stimulus control from the prompt to the S^D.
Prompts must be removed; goal of each method is to move from the artificial stimulus to the natural stimulus
Describe fading of response prompts. Provide an example
gradual elimination of the prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD.
As the kid learns to hit the ball the coach no longer has to give as detailed instruction so it might be cut down to one or two words and then eventually there is no more instruction the kid just knows how to hit. you can use prompt fading- gradually removing prompt until no longer needed, or you can use prompt delay- present S^D wait a number of seconds and then provide the prompt if the response is not made to the S^D.
Describe fading of stimulus prompts. Provide and example of within-stimulus prompt fading and extrastimulus prompt fading
-Stimulus fading for extrastimulus is gradually removing that addition stimulus as the response began occurring reliably in the presence of the SD; *using flashcards: S^D one side, answer on the other, if don't know they look, once all are known there is transfer of stimulus control.
-Stimulus fading for within-stimulus is gradually changing the SD from its altered form to its natural form; when coach changed the slower and shorter distance pitch at first then eventually starts moving back and throwing harder.
What are three ways to transfer stimulus control?
prompt fading, prompt delay, stimulus fading
Describe the prompt delay procedure. Provide an example of the constant prompt delay procedure and an example of the progressive prompt delay procedure
present SD wait a number of seconds and then provide the prompt if the response is not made to the SD.
constant prompt delay- when learning new words with flash cards if didn't say anything for 4 seconds it was said for them to repeat, student had to read all words in less than 4 seconds and once they did this the 4 second delay prompt was no longer used
progressive prompt delay- when teaching child to say thank you first if give them something and after 2 seconds they do not say thank you, you say it for them to repeat, eventually once they start saying it within 2 seconds then you increase the amount of delay by an interval and they should eventually start saying thank you before any prompt is given
Suppose you are conducting a learning trial with a student with autism. How would you use a verbal and physical response prompt to get the student to pay attention to you when you said the student's name?
You could say their name, and then touch their face, hand, nose so they would look at you.
Describe how you could use stimulus prompts and fading to learn definitions for the behavior modification procedures described in this chapter
after 5 seconds of looking at the definition or word if do not know the answer use the back of the flash card as an extra stimulus and look at the answer. eventually when you no longer need the 5 seconds to answer you have transferred stimulus control and fading has occurred.
What is fading?
The gradual removal of prompts
What is the learning trial?
sequence of presenting the SD, prompting the response, and providing a reinforcer
What is extra stimulus prompt?
stimulus is added to help a person make a correct discriminations
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