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Terms in this set (57)
What is anorexia and s/s?
lack of appetite; may lead to malnutrition.
hunger is absent having no desire for food; hypovitaminosis (vitamin deficiency)
The appetite center, which stimulates or suppresses the appetite, is located in the?
What is the diet regimen for a patient with anorexia?
What is some nursing management for anorexia?
monitor weight and encourage nutrition
Sunken eyeballs, dry mucous membranes, dark/foul urine, and skin tint, tachycardia, hypotension are signs and symptoms of?
HPV, smoking, and alcohol are contributing factors to what cancer?
What type of cancer is associated with pipe and prolonged exposure to wind and sun?
If a patient presents asymptomatic with a lesion, lump, pain, soreness, bleeding, difficulty swallowing or tasting food, hoarseness, and leukoplakia (white patch) what disorder is this?
If your patient asks you what radiation and chemotherapy do for the cancer what do you tell them?
it decreases the tumor size
What is the focus of attention for this patient with oral cancer?
When the client returns from the operating room after oral surgery, how should they be positioned?
positioned flat on abdomen or side, head turned to the side to facilitate drainage from mouth
After oral surgery, there should be equipment at the client's bedside. What is this equipment?
·Equipment for suctioning
·Tracheostomy for airway and respiratory distress
What is important for a nurse to remember about administering oral liquids or foods?
oral liquids and foods must not be given until an order is written, and the nurse must observe the client swallowing.
Why would a patient with oral cancer get a GI tube?
they have dysphagia, pain, can't keep food down, not getting proper nutrition, and getting medications.
The removal of gas and fluids from the stomach; to lavage the stomach to removed ingested toxins:
How do you determine the placement of a GI tube?
X-ray and aspirate stomach contents to confirm placement
What should the pH level be?
How much formula do you administer for a bolus tube feeding and how often?
· 250 to 400 mL
· 15 to 30 minutes
Why would you not insert the tube below the pylorus?
because it causes abdominal cramping and diarrhea
What duration of time would how many mL's would be administered for intermittent tube feeding?
· 250 to 400 mL
· Over 30 to 60 minutes
Continuous tube feedings are administered at lower rates which are?
· 1.5 usually 12-24 hours
What is the purpose of a cyclic tube feeding?
it ensures adequate nutrition weaning from tube to oral feeding
How can a nurse prevent vented tubes from leaking at the vent lumen?
keeping the vent above the level of the client's stomach
This tube relieves abdominal distention caused by problems after surgery, episodes of acute upper GI bleeding, intestinal obstruction, or diagnostic purposes. What tube is this?
large GI tube
What tube has a transabdominal opening into the stomach that provides long-term access for administering fluids and liquid nourishment?
The nurse must examine the appearance and volume of the drainage from the gastrostomy tube during the first how many hours?
What is an important nursing intervention with gastrostomy tubes?
characteristics and pattern of bowels and daily weights
What does GERD result from?
Inability of the lower esophageal sphincter also called cardiac sphincter to close fully, allowing stomach contents to flow freely into the esophagus
What increases susceptibility to GERD?
obesity and pregnancy
What are signs and symptoms of GERD?
· Discomfort (dyspepsia)
· Esophagus (pyrosis)
· Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
· Odynophagia (painful swallowing)
· Esophagitis (inflammation of the lining of the esophagus)
What is nursing management for GERD?
· Eating smaller meals and avoiding foods and beverages
· Losing weight
· Avoid tight clothing
· Elevate HOB
· Stop smoking
· Avoid food and drink for several hours before time
This is the most common surgical procedure performed for GERD, it's a procedure that tightens lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by wrapping the gastric fundus around the lower esophagus and suturing it into place. What is this called?
What does the nurse observe the client having fundoplication for postoperative abdominal distention and nausea?
because many clients cannot belch or vomit after undergoing this procedure
A sac or pouch in one or more layers of the wall of an organ or structure is?
Zenker's diverticulum is the most common esophageal diverticulum, what is this?
congenital weakness of the esophageal wall which causes food and secretions to get trapped resulting in interference with food passing through the stomach
What are signs and symptoms of diverticulum?
· Foul breath (halitosis)
· Gurgling sounds in the chest
What is the treatment for diverticulum?
· Bland, soft, semisoft, or liquid diet to make easier passage of food.
· Eating four to six meals a day
The junction of the stomach and esophagus and part of the stomach slide in and out through the weakened portion of the diaphragm. This is the most common type, what is this type of hernia?
axial or sliding
What confirms the diagnosis of a hiatal hernia?
What is the most common type of cancer in the esophagus and where does it begin?
squamous cell and in the middle to upper part of the esophagus
What are signs and symptoms of cancer of the esophagus?
· Weight loss
· Regurgitation of food
· Tumor may hemorrhage and cause back pain
and respiratory distress
When should the patient receive oral nourishment after surgery?
when bowel sounds return and are active
The client experiences epigastric discomfort, often described as?
If a client complains of abdominal pain in the epigastrium that doesn't radiate, what lesions can you expect to find?
peptic ulcers in the duodenum
What is the greatest factor for PUD?
Peptic ulcers with intracranial pressure lead to _____?
Peptic ulcers with burns lead to _____?
When do client's experience the most discomfort with PUD?
when the stomach is empty
What anemia are clients with chronic gastric inflammation prone to?
pernicious anemia because it inhibits production of intrinsic factor (poor absorption of B12).
How do clients describe abdominal pain with PUD?
"burning" quality that occurs 1 to several hours after meals and disturbs sleep
What occurs in Dumping Syndrome?
the rapid dumping of large amounts of hypertonic chyme into the jejunum draws fluid from the circulating blood into the intestine causing hypovolemia
What is the most common type of stomach cancer and where does it arise from?
adenocarcinoma which arises from the glandular cells in the inner layer of the stomach
What is the most common population of people to get stomach malignancies?
· African Americans
What is a normal BMI?
What is underweight BMI?
What is overweight BMI?
BMI higher than ___ is obesity?
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