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CVS106 EXAM 3
Terms in this set (43)
Ejection Fraction Formula & Definition
Normal Value- Greater than 50% up to 75%
Percentage of blood being ejected from the ventricle during systole (per beat)
Fractional Shortening Formula & Definition
Normal Value 30%-45%
The percentage of change in left ventricular internal dimension throughout the cardiac cycle
Cardiac Output Formula & Definition
CO= SV x HR (heart rate)/1,000
Normal Value 4-8 liters per minute
Stroke Volume Formula & Definition
Normal value 70-110 ml
The VOLUME of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction (every heartbeat).
Apical View Definition & Orientation
The transducer is placed on the left side, lateral to the left breast and pointed upward. Apical pulse can be easily palpated here. If the transducer is placed to high, the heart will appear foreshortened creating a round heart with poor visualization of the apex. The apical views should appear oblong
Apical 4 Chamber Orientation
The transducer is angled upward in the direction of the base of the heart. The index is directed towards the table. the heart is transected from the apex to the base.
The Apex and ventricles appear at the top of the image. The base and atria appear at the bottom. Left side cardiac chambers appear at the right and the right side chambers appear on the left.
Apical 4 anatomy
Anatomy visualized is the Right and left ventricles, LV lateral wall, IVS/septal wall. Left and right atrium, IAS. MV, TV. possible to see two pulmonary veins entering the inferior portion of the LA.
Abnormalities found in A4
Useful in assessing LV wall motion abnormalities.
Assessing blood flow thru the MV and TV. The MV and TV are parallel to the doppler beam and will give us accurate velocities of flow.
The apex of the LV can be evaluated for thrombi or aneurysms.
Apical 5 chamber orientation
Variation of A4. Transducer is tilted more anteriorly and superiorly ( toward the right shoulder) so that the ultrasound beam transverses the LVOT and AOV.
Anatomy of A5
Same as A4 with addition to the aortic root, AOV, and LVOT.
MV and TV may be obscured.
Abnormalities found in A5
Evaluate any obstructer in the LVOT as well as allowing doppler assessment velocities of the AOV and LVOT.
Apical 2 orientation
From the A4 view, rotate the index aprox. 60 degrees counterclockwise.
Apical 2 Anatomy
This view allows us to see the LA, LV, MV, inferior and anterior walls.
Allows visualization of the anterior and inferior walls and is important in evaluating segmental wall motion abnormalities.
The DA may be seen posterior to the LA and is useful in the assessment of DA dissection.
The LA appendage may be visualized extending from the LA to the tight image.
Apical 3 Orientation
From an A2 view rotate the index counter clockwise. (AKA as the apical long axis view).
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