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Stage 1 Oral Exam Prep
Terms in this set (75)
The Semi Circular canal and the three valves help you to do what and how?
and the hair that sticks into the fluid and interpret the 3 dimensional motion
What connects your sinuses to your inner ears?
the Eustachian tube
What is the acronym "ICEFLAG"?
Inversion Illusion, Coriolis Illusion, Elevator Illusion, False Horizons, Leans, Autokinesis, Graveyard Spiral
What causes the leans?
Whenever you are flying and you are abruptly roll the wings level and your body still feels like you are turning
The acceleration force from the power increase is what puts you back into your seat and may cause you to experience what illusion?
What is a Graveyard Spiral?
The pilot will start to turn the airplane and then the body will get used to being in a prolonged turn and then when you roll wings level, you mistake the feeling of the leans and try to turn back into a turn but don't realize it and this causes you to pull back and tighten the turn since you are loosing altitude. Causing you spiral out of control.
What is the Coriolis Illusion?
Usually in a steep turn and when you look away you feel like you are on a different plane. Think about spinning around a baseball bat and then try to run. The fluid in the inner ear normalizes and then when you move your head you feel as though you are acting on a different plane and this causes you to think the aircraft is banking or performing a maneuver when it really isn't.
Posture requires brain power and better posture keeps you?
Focused. It keeps your airway wide open when you look up.
Why is posture important when flying?
It helps you align your body, which can help you fly feel what the aircraft is doing and know what it is doing. When conditions allow (VMC/VFR) you use posture sensations (somatosensory sensations), vestibular sense, and visual senses you can fly the aircraft quite adequately with these senses.
What can happen when you do not have good posture?
You may suffer from disorientation in uncoordinated turns and the acceleration forces of the aircraft. Don't however, fly from the "seat of your pants" you are putting yourself at risk of suffering from disorientation.
What is the elevator illusion?
It is caused by updrafts and downdrafts that are confused by the pilot to mean that the airplane in either a nose up or nose down attitude when it is not.
What is the inversion illusion?
It is when a pilot stops a climb abruptly and this creates the feeling as though the pilot is tumbling backwards inflight when he is not in reality.
What is autokinesis?
It is when you look at a distant light at night for too long and it appears to be moving. However, it is not moving.
What are all the vestibular illusions?
Inversion Illusion, Coriolis Illusion, Elevator Illusion, Leans, Graveyard Spiral, Somatografic Illusion
What are the visual illusions?
False Horizon, Autokinesis, Runway/Terrain Slope, Runway Width, Black Hole Illusion, Empty-Field Myopia
What is empty field myopia?
You eyes will not focus on one thing when looking to the blue sky and this may make it hard to see traffic
What are the three different instrument cross-check techniques?
Selected Radial Cross-Check, Inverted V Cross-Check, Rectangular Cross-Check
What is the Selected Radial Cross-Check?
this instrument cross check has you scanning from the attitude indicator to then to another instrument, then back to the attitude indicator and repeating this process multiple times.
What is attitude instrument flying with the control and performance method?
You use a specific power setting and pitch setting to receive a determined performance from the aircraft.
What are the performance instruments?
Airspeed, Altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator
What are your control instruments?
attitude indicator, manifold pressure, tachometers, fuel flow, etc.
What are some of the control and performance effects on the DA40 when you input certain flight control or power commands?
+/- I" of manifold pressure = 100ft, +/- 1" of manifold pressure = 5 kts of airspeed (while maintaining altitude), for every inch of power +/- you must adjust pitch +/- 0.5 degrees
What is the primary and supporting method of instrument scanning?
It is using a set of predetermined instruments as they contain to their control function, which help to control the primary or secondary control indications of pitch, bank/roll, and power.
What are the instrument scanning errors that can occur?
(Trying to interpret one instrument and not the rest)
Omission (Scanning, but accidentally forgetting one instrument in the cross-check)
Emphasis (Trying to maintain altitude by using the attitude indicator and forgetting the other instruments that can be used)
What causes Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)?
Poor situational awareness, improper flight planning when flight around high terrain is expected, neglect of the autopilot, neglect to use GPS-based terrain awareness systems
How does a magnetometer or flux gate compass work?
A magnet within the magnetometer aligns to the magnetic flux of the Earth and an electrical current is created, which goes through the three legs covered by the soft iron coils. As it crosses the three coils a current is induced into them and this provides the magnetometer heading reading. There are three terminals and calculate the amount of Flux from the magnetic field to give the reading for your AHRS system.
How does a ring laser Gyro work or solid state Gyro work?
They are really sensitive to light and use this to detect very small red/blue shift in the light.
How does a slaving gyro work?
A slaving Gyro is when you have to reset the Gyro due to precession, which causes a difference in the reading on the HSI. In order to reset the Gyro so your HSI reads correctly you have to look at the slaving meter to know how to correct the indications. Understand too that the in order to align the slaved gyro there needs to be a transmitter that aligns the gyro by a torque motor that causes the heading indicator to process until it is aligned with the transmitter signal which is connected electronically to the HSI. (IFH 5-16).
What is magnetic deviation?
Because of magnetic influences within the airplane itself, the compass needle is frequently deflected from it normal reading. This deflection is called deviation.
What is magnetic variation?
the angular difference between the location of true north and magnetic north. If you draw a line from true north to your location and then another line from your location to magnetic north you can find the magnetic variation by connecting the true north line to the magnetic north line and determining the angle and direction (East or West).
How does Primary Radar work?
It requires that a signal from the radar signal is sent out from the station and hits the skin of the aircraft, which causes the signal to "bounce" back or return to the station to provide the controllers with information. Primary radar however relies on the aircraft to be within "line of sight" to the radar system.
How does Secondary Radar work?
It requires that a signal from the station be sent to "interrogate" an aircrafts transponder. When the aircraft's transponder receives the interrogation signal the transponder sends a coded reply to the ground station, which provides the altitude and ground track information to ATC.
What are the three modes of transponders?
A, C, & S
Which mode of transponder includes altitude encoding?
C and S
Which kind of transponder do the DA40 have at UVU and what information can they provide?
Mode S transponders, which have altitude encoding, identification data, and ADS-B equipment.
How does ADS-B work ?
It does not have to be interrogated by a radar station signal like a transponder. It will broadcasts automatically and it is dependent on GPS. It is satellite based and is a not rely on "line of site" for another aircraft to see you based which makes it possible to see airplanes out in the ocean or within the mountain. ADS-B can also talk to one another. Aircraft must be equiped with ADS-B In to view air traffic, and ADS-B Out in order to send messages of location to other aircraft. (AIMS 4-5-7)
What is required to be done with ADS-B equipment on the ground and while airborne?
You need to make sure before takeoff that you FLT ID is entered in the avionics and when you are airborne ensure that you are not in anonymous mode and that your FLT ID is entered for your aircraft.
Which airspace do you need ADS-B equipment? Do you need ADS-B In or Out Capabilities?
You need ADS-B Out in the Class Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Echo (Only at and above 10,000)
What is the TCAS system?
It is the Traffic Alert and Advisory System that is satellite based. There are two variations of TCAS and those are TCAS I and TCAS II. TCAS I is basically the same as TIS, but is not ground based and intended to be used by smaller commuter or GA aircraft. Then TCAS II is like TCAS I, but it will give you traffic resolution advisory (RA) instructions.
What is the TIS-B system?
It is the Traffic Information Service that is ground based network of transponder based service. The ground stations are an ADS-B service. It helps to provide aircraft with ADS-B In the ability to see aircraft that do not have ADS-B Out capabilities. It can also increase situational awareness by displaying other advisory information like weather and other aeronautical information for advisory use only.
What is the TIS system?
A ground based Traffic Information Service system.
How does a VOR work?
It is a ground based navigation system. You have a master reference signal (the pulse) and sweeping signal from VOR in the clockwise direction. The VOR Receiver uses a timer to tell how long it has been since the signal has swept around the station and hit the VOR Receiver to tell what radial you are on. (AIM 1-1-3)
What should you do if you receive an Resolution Advisory (RA) and ATC tells you a contractionary instruct to the RA.
You should follow the RA and not ATC and advise ATC that you are following a RA.
What are the three parts of an ILS and how do we identify them on an approach?
The three components are guidance, visual, and range. The guidance is the Glideslope and the Localizer. Range is the outer marker, middle marker, inner marker. The visual is the runway lights or runway (anything in 91.175).
Where is the glideslope antenna located and how big is the glideslope beam?
The glideslope works just as the Localizer but is flipped on its side and is in the UHF range. The glideslope antenna is located at the approach end of the runway in use of to the side of the runway. A standard glideslope is 3 degrees horizontally (remember it is on it's side)(1.4° in width and is 0.7° for full scale deflection up or down).
Where is the localizer antenna and big is the beam?
The Localizer is at the departure end of the runway off to the side a couple hundred feet off the runway. And the Glideslope is next to the PAPI. The Localizer shows a signal 35 degrees from 0-10 nm, and then 10 degrees from 10-18 nm. And it sends two different VHF frequencies down the centerline of the runway to the plane to tell you where you are relative to the aircraft. Depending on the length of the runway will determine how sensitive the Localizer is. And at the threshold of the runway it will be 350 ft full deflection on either side equaling 700 ft total span.
How does GPS work?
For GPS you have a minimum of 24 GPS satellites on 6 Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which guarantees that you will have 5 satellites working. 3 satellites works to give you Google Maps (2 dimensional). 4 satellites gives you 3 dimensional images. 5 satellites gives you time and false detection. 6 satellites gives you false detection and exclusion.
What are the three pieces of information that come from a GPS and what can disrupt the signal?
Satellite ID, ephemeral data (or the orbital plane which that satellite is on), atomic clock, the receiver receives only. What are three things that can mess up a GPS signal. Refraction of the signal by the ionosphere, ephemeral error (raises or lowers the satellite to avoid hitting space junk, but it can produce an error), atomic clock errors.
What is RAIM?
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring and performs error-checking on the GPS signal to alert the user if unreliable GPS information is being received. There must be a minimum of 5 working satellites to get RAIM.
What is False Detection/ False Detection and Exclusion?
They are subsections of RAIM - when it removes a satellite from being used with out you knowing.
What is WAAS?
The system references the ground stations which sends the information to a master station to the upwind station and this station sends it to the geostationary satellite. Then the satellite sends it to the plane and the accuracy is 3ft laterally and 9ft vertically. If you want to know if WAAS is working on the G1000 in the DA40 go to AUX-GPS-WAAS.
If VOR navigation is required what else is required when operating above 24,000 ft?
There are three things you need to be aware of with RNP, what are these things you need to be aware of?
Terminal (1 nm is full deflection 30nm and final approach fix), en route (2nm is full deflection when you are 30 nm away from the destination or airport of origin), approach (0.3° and must have it within 2nm within your final approach fix). You should be aware and watch for this which should happen automatically.
The flight director (FD) makes the commands and the autopilot is the?
Muscle of the system.
When holding if you get a expected further clearance time this helps you to be prepared unless you loose your radios.
If you are on an Outbound leg and the expected further clearance time just hit. Finish the lap in the hold and then continue.
What is a weeping wing?
It is an anti icing system. It leaks anti ice fluid onto the wing. You must activate 30 minutes before icing conditions and you could run out of fluid. But it can remove the ice from the beyond the leading edge as well.
What is a heated wing?
This device draws the bleed air to the copper tubes and to the metal to use this anti ice device. Must have engine power to work so you can lose some engine performance and you have to have power during a descent.
What are de-ice boots?
There are de-ice boots that inflate by using compressed air to expand the leading edge of the wing and it breaks up the ice.
Anti-ice ..... ice build up and de-ice ..... it from the aircraft. Anti ice on the DA40 is the pitot heat and windshield defrost.
You must remember to have the applicable navigation for the route to be flown. If you plan on using GPS then what do you need to have as a backup navigation equipment?
What are the four types of VOR Checks?
VOT (VOR Testing Facility)(+/- 4 degrees), Dual Check (+/- 4 degrees), VOR Checkpoint (+/- 4 degrees), and Airborne Check (+/- 6 degrees)
What instruments are apart of the static system?
The altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and the airspeed indicator
How does the altimeter work?
The altimeter is connected to the static port. The altimeter measures the absolute pressure of the ambient air within the instrument casing. Inside are sealed aneroid wafers. As the barometric pressure increases/decreases, it causes the wafers to expand or contract. As the pressure decreases, the aneroid wafers expand and indicate an increase in altitude
How does the vertical speed indicator work?
Changing pressures expand or contract a diaphragm connected to the indicating needle through gears and levers. The VSI is connected to the static pressure line through a calibrated leak; it measures differential static pressure within the instrument casing.
How does the airspeed indicator work?
Difference Between Ram Air Pressure (Pitot Tube) and the Static Air Pressure (Static Port) within the instrument case.
How does the attitude indicator work?
The gyro in the attitude indicator is mounted on a horizontal plane and depends upon rigidity in space for its operation. The horizon bar represents the true horizon and is fixed to the gyro; it remains in a horizontal plane as the airplane is pitched or banked about its lateral or longitudinal axis, indicating the attitude of the airplane relative to the true horizon.
What are the two principles to gyroscopic instruments?
Precession and rigidity in space
How does the turn coordinator operate?
The turn part of the instrument uses precession to indicate direction and approximate rate of turn. A gyro reacts by trying to move in reaction to the force applied, thus moving the miniature aircraft in proportion to the rate of turn. The inclinometer in the instrument is a black glass ball sealed inside a curved glass tube that is partially filled with a liquid. The ball measures the relative strength of the force of gravity and the force of inertia caused by a turn.
How does a directional gyro work?
It operates off of rigidity in space. The rotor turns in a vertical plane, and fixed to the rotor is a compass card. Since the rotor remains rigid in space relative to the vertical plane. As the instrument case and the airplane revolve around the vertical axis, the card provides clear and accurate heading information.
Do the DA40 gyroscopic instruments use a traditional vacuum pump?
No they use an electric motor
How is the magnetic compass constructed?
It takes a vertical compass card and flattens it and it is placed into the instrument casing with kerosene
What is SLED?
Signiture, location, error (bearing), and date
What information does a Mode A transponder transmit?
It transmits a squawk code (octal code)
What does the word aneroid mean?
It means that dry or in our case with the altimeter that the altimer is a dry altimeter so you would not want water to get in and potentially freeze if the temperatures were below freezing.
What are the entry sectors to a hold?
70° (Tear-Drop), 110° (Parallel), and 180° (Direct)
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