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Terms in this set (84)
Male sex hormone
The surgical removal of the fold of skin found over the glanspenis
The growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus
An abnormal pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants itself outside of the uterine cavity (e.g., implantation in the fallopian tube).
Male or female reproductive cell; sperm cell or egg cell that carries genetic material (DNA)
A gland that produces gametes and hormones (i.e., testes and ovaries)
The study of the structure and disorders of the female reproductive system
The surgical removal of the uterus
The time of life when secondary sex characteristics appear and sexual reproduction is possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Characteristics that develops under the influence of sex hormones, but is not directly involved in sexual reproduction.
A surgical procedure in males that removes a portion of each vas deferens for sterilization
The presence of glucose in the urine, which is most commonly caused by diabetes mellitus.
An inflammation of the nephronsand renal pelvis of one or both kidneys
A solid mass that may form in any portion of the urinary tract (e.g., kidney stone)
Failure to void urine due to obstruction, nervous contraction of the urethra, or absence of the sensation of the desire to urinate
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
An infection of a part of the urinary tract, or the presence of many microbes in the urine.
The inability to retain urine
The process by which urine is expelled from the body.
The structures of the male genitourinary system serve a dual purpose what are they?
they have functions in both the reproductive system and the urinary system
Components of the male genitourinary system are
-Composed of three cylindrical rods of erectile tissue
-Loose skin at the distal end of the penis is called the foreskin
-Erection is a parasympathetic reflex
-Distal end of the penis; also called the head of the penis
-Urethra ends at the glanspenis
-Function is to eject semen
-Ejaculation is a sympathetic reflex
-A tube that transports semen and urine to the outside of the body
-Ejaculation is the powerful expulsion of semen from the urethra into the external environment
A skin-covered pouch of contractile muscle tissue that is suspended from the perinealregion:
-Function is to keep the testes at an optimum temperature for sperm production
•The optimal temperature is three degrees Celsius below body temperature
•When the external temperature falls, the scrotum contracts to be closer to the body so sperm can still be produced
•The scrotum is divided into two sacs by a septum, with each sac containing a testis, an epididymis, and a portion of the vas deferens
The male gonads that produce mature carriers of genetic material (i.e., DNA). Functions include:
-Producing and storing sperm at a consistent temperature
-Producing the hormone testosterone, which make the testes a part of the endocrine system as well as the reproductive system
A mixture of spermatozoa (sperm) and seminal fluids:
-Sperm -The genetic component of semen that fertilizes the ovum, which is composed of a head, midpieceand tail:
•Head contains the genetic material
•Midpiececontains the nutrients and energy for the sperm cell
•Tail assists the sperm's movement
The liquid portion of semen that provides sperm with nutrients and a transportation medium
An elongated, cord-like structure that is located along the posterior border of the testes:
-Sperm matures in the epididymisfor about ten to fourteen days
-Sperm is stored and transported from the epididymis
Vas Deferens (seminal duct, ductusdeferens)
A small tube that connects the epididymisto the ejaculatory duct, and carries sperm to the ejaculatory duct.
The ejaculatory duct is located just superior to the base of the prostate and passes inferiorly and anteriorlythrough the prostate:
-Terminates in the urethra at the prostate gland
-Function is to transport both the spermatozoa and the seminal vesicle fluid
Two pouches that are located along the inferior and posterior surface of the bladder. Function includes:
-Secretes seminal fluid -a viscous, alkaline nutrient-rich media for sperm that enhances motility and viability within the female reproduction tract
A walnut-sized, doughnut-shaped gland that is located inferior to the bladder encircling the urethra. The prostate gland is quite small during childhood, but it grows to the size of a chestnut during puberty.
-Function is to secrete a thin, slightly acidic, milky-colored fluid at the time of ejaculation:
•Aids in the motility of spermatozoa
•Nourishes the sperm
•The prostate is palpated during a rectal exam for males after middle age to check for cancer or hypertrophy (enlargement).
The female reproductive system is composed of the following
Estrogen and Progesterone
Female gonads that are located on both sides of the uterus and produce estrogen and progesterone.
Immature egg cells that carry the female's DNA:
-Stored in the ovaries
-Matures and becomes an ovum when fertilized by sperm
Estrogen and Progesterone
Female sex hormones:
-Maintain the lining of the uterus for the implantation of an ovum (egg cell)
-Estrogen is also produced by the adrenal glands
Ducts leading out of the ovaries that provide a passageway through which an oocyteis transported to the uterus. Fertilization of an oocytenormally occurs in these tubes.
Hollow, muscular organ shaped like a pear and is located in the center of the pelvic cavity behind the bladder and in front of the rectum.
The uterus consists of three parts:
Wall of the uterus are composed of three layers
A musculomembranous, collapsible tube located between the rectum, urethra and bladder. The vagina is capable of great dilation. Functions include serving as:
-A passageway for intercourse
-The lower portion of the birth canal
-An excretory duct for uterine secretions and menstrual flow
The female external genitalia:
-Mon pubis -A pad of tissue situated over the symphysispubis, which becomes covered with hair at puberty
-Labia majora-A prominent cutaneoustissue that forms the outer opening of the vagina
-Labia minora-Small folds of tissue located medial to the labia majora
-Clitoris -Composed of erectile tissue
A muscular region that is located between the vaginal orifice and the anus
Accessory reproductive structure that develop at puberty under the influence of estrogen
and progesterone, which produce milk for the nourishment of a newborn.
Duration of the cycle is normally __ to __ days with an average length of __ days
24 to 35
The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones in the body and occurs in three phases
-Menstrual Phase (menses)
Menstrual Phase (menses)
The endometriumor uterine lining sloughs off during days 1 to 5 of the 28-day cycle. The menstrual cycle may vary according to hormonal levels.
This phase occurs between menstruation and postovulationduring days 6 to13 of a 28-day cycle. An immature egg starts maturing in the ovary during this phase.
The release of an oocytefrom the ovary into the fallopian tube occurs mid-cycle on day 14.
The time between ovulation and onset of menses that occurs between days 15 to 28:
-If fertilization occurs, the oocyteenlarges and matures into an ovum
-Ovum secretes a hormone called progesterone
-A mature egg is also known as a follicle
-If no fertilization occurs, hormone production stops and menses occur
The primary function of the urinary system is to
help maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of the blood.
Structures of the urinary system and their functions are
Two organs that are located posteriorlybelow the diaphragm that filter the blood and remove the waste products of metabolism (i.e., ammonia, urea and ions). The kidneys also selectively excrete or reabsorb water and electrolytes:
Function of the kidneys is to filter the blood to
-Help regulate the composition and volume of blood
-Help regulate blood pressure
-Contribute to metabolism
The outer layer of the kidney that is reddish in color
The inner, spongy portion of the
kidneys that is reddish-brown in color
Urine drains from the medulla into this
part of the kidney, which is the portion that becomes the ureters
Functional unit of the kidney that is located in the cortex and medulla. This is where the work takes place
-The portion of the nephronwhere the blood is filtered. The glomerulusand Bowman's capsule are located in the renal corpuscle
A portion of the nephronthat receives the filtrate from the renal corpuscle and either reabsorbs or secretes the material
Tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder by peristalsis
A hollow, muscular organ in the pelvic cavity that collects urine
A small tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body
Filtration occurs as
arterial pressure forces plasma through the renal corpuscle.
Water, salts, glucose, and other dissolved blood components are filtered out of the
blood, and reabsorbed into the bloodstream.
About ___ of the filtrate is returned to the blood. The remaining __ of the filtrate is waste products that are excreted as urine.
The average adult excretes __ to __ liters of urine every ___ hours
1 to 2
Urine is approximately ___ water and __ waste products
Micturition is a process by which
urine is expelled
from the body (urination).
Urination is stimulated by
the distension of the bladder as it fills with urine.
Distension of the bladder causes a
reflex where the
external urethral sphincter relaxes, allowing the
bladder to empty.
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